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N o t e s
p a g e  6

Toxic Interiors of New Vehicles
New vehicles provide a bad environment when it comes to toxic chemicals with VOC's alone contributing a mix of 50 to 60 of them.

VOC's are toxic chemicals. There are many car parts that can off-gas VOCs (see VOC's below), however, when a car is parked or driven in warm temperatures, it can make the VOCs off-gas at a greater rate. It can also break other chemicals down into more 
toxic substances.

Recommendations to protect you and your family.

Some of the 275 chemicals of concern, as they are linked to cancer in humans and animals, are:
Acetaldehyde
Benzene
Chlorine
Ethylbenzene
Formaldehyde
Lead
Phthalates
Polyvinyl chloride
Styrene
Toluene
Trimethylbenzene
Xylene

These chemicals can pose different health challenges, such as:
Allergic skin reactions
Aggravated asthma symptoms
Breathing difficulties
Conjunctival irritation
Decline inserum cholinesterase levels
Dizziness and lightheadness
Drowsiness
Fatigue
Headaches
Hormone disruption
Impaired concentration
Insomnia
Learning disabilities and infertility
Vomiting

Ask the manufacturer if they subscribe to voluntary third-party eco-labels, such as the TUV Toxproof and Öko-Tex Standard 100.

The following pages are a summary of some 64 files about toxicity of vehicle interiors affecting human health and the importance of Full Disclosure before purchase.

One of the most toxic places you can be is inside a car. The World Health Organization has recognized interior air pollution of vehicles are a major threat to human health. The truth is that the quality of air inside cars is often much worse than that of nearby ambient air samples or even at the side of the road
(from http:/pureti.com/content/documents/ICTA-In-Car-Air-Pollution-Report.pdf).

Between the toxins in the car exhaust coming in from outside (especially in heavy and daily commute traffic) and the toxins from the materials used in the interior, riding in an automobile should require wearing a hazmat suit.

Chemicals emitting from materials in car interiors have been extensively studied by The Ecology Center, who released several reports with their findings from 2006-2012. Their most recent report in 2012, Model Year 2011/2012 Guide to New Vehicles (http://www.ecocenter.org/sites/default/files/2012_Cars.pdf) identified a number of chemicals of concern.

"Research shows that vehicle interiors contain a unique cocktail of hundreds of toxic chemicals that off-gas in small, confined spaces", said Jeff Gearhart, research director at the Ecology Center. Consumers have no way of knowing the dangers they face unless a statement of potential health issues from chemicals used in automobile interiors is provided. Materials in new cars are unstable, giving off gases, including benzene and formaldehyde, both of which are known carcinogens. New car interiors can contain up to 28 times the legal limit of VOC's in climates like Australia. Formaldehyde is also called formalin, methanal,, quaternium-(15), methylene oxide and formic aldehyde. VOC molecules combine with nitrogen oxides and react to form ozone or smog, significantly affecting the respiratory system. Some automakers are going in the right direction to reduce auto indoor pollution. Some automakers have eliminated PVC and fire retardants from their interiors, in 2012, 17 percent of new vehicles have PVC-free interiors and 60 percent are produced without brominated fire/flame retardants.

Chemicals of primary concern include:
• VOCs, including benzene and styrene are toxic chemicals whose off gassing compounds are associated with hormone disruption, liver and kidney damage, respiratory conditions and cancer. Robert Weiss, certified microbial investigator and founder of RTK Environmental Group says the VOC molecules in a confined space are immediately harmful to inhale. 
• brominated flame retardants (BFR's) outgas chlorine; these are added to plastics and create thyroid problems, learning and memory impairment, brain fog thought disconnection, decreased fertility and behavioral; researchers found flame retardant chemicals, formaldehyde, chlorine and heavy metal in air tested in new cars.
https://articles.mercola.com//sites/articles/archive/2018/03/21/new-car-smell.aspx
• polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and plasticizers; PVC's also outgas chlorine; PVC's are used for plastics and windshields contain lead and heavy metals and chemicals called phthalates, which are linked to fertility issues, liver problems, testes damage, thyroid, ovaries, kidneys and blood damage 
• lead and other heavy metals are extremely toxic and enter the body through breathing

Many of these pollutants were found in levels exceeding indoor and outdoor air quality standards.

All of these chemicals produce serious health effects.

Fire/flame retardants belong to the same class of chemicals as DDT's or PCB's (organohalogens) which react with other chemicals to create cancer causing dioxins and are widely used in furniture, carpeting and your car. Such chemicals have been linked to cancer, male infertility, autism and obesity. VOCs as a group depress the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to VOCs may lead to "organic solvent syndrome", which produces headaches, irritability, depression, insomnia, agitation, extreme tiredness, tremors, impaired concentration and short-term memory.

Many heavy metals cause cancer and disrupt the endocrine system. Lead specifically contributes to lower IQ, arthritis, gout, hypothyroid, insomnia, stillbirths and many other health problems.

Toxic substances are defined under CEPA (Canadian Environment Protection Act) as those that cause, or may cause, immediate or long-term harm to human health, the environment and biological diversity. Substances include mercury, asbestos, lead, formaldehyde and bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical used in some plastics. 
(from https://enviroklenz.com/toxic-chemicals-found-automobile-interiors)

Recommendations: 

1. Include a statement of potential health issues that could be expected to influence the decision of a reasonable buyer or lessee in purchasing orleasing a vehicle. Pertinent information includes which particular chemicals are used on a vehicle interior of the model under consideration for use and what do tests on specific combinations of chemicals elicit in terms of toxicity to humans? Different auto manufacturers utilize different interior chemical combinations in and on interior components of various models. What affect 5G wireless technologies have on any specific combination of chemicals used in car interiors.

2. Be familiar with the threshold limit values or permissible exposure limits of airborne contaminants and physical agents used. Many people complain about dizziness, headaches, nausea, irritation or other factors of discomfort, such as dermatitis issues like dryness, irritation or sensitization of the skin from chemicals.

Nervous System Damage Many of the compounds that cause skin irritation or may increase the possibility of cancer can also have a cumulative toxic effect if they are accidentally ingested. Ethanol, camphor and linalool can all cause nervous system damage. So can the previously mentioned chloroform and A-terpineol. Toxin exposure results in symptoms including dizziness, nausea, headaches, numbness and pain in the neck and spine.

Respiratory Problems Other chemicals in fabric softeners can cause lung problems and more significant irritation if they are inhaled. Benzyl alcohol, a common ingredient, acts as an upper respiratory tract irritant, while other compounds like A-Terpineol and pentane can also cause lung damage. These chemicals can cause asthma.

If safety tests completed by auto manufactures or on their behalf, in regard to chemical poisoning of humans by toxic vehicle interiors where is this information available for potential owners? Surely this is able to be done when a vehicle is manufactured. People do not desire poisonous flame retardants and plastics and sprays that out-gas over years to affect health.

Get information on combined toxicity of chemicals used in vehicle interiors. See below under Declarable Substance Classification, Legally Regulated (LR). What collaborations have taken place on such toxicities as exist in vehicle interiors to best protect new vehicle purchasers? Note that Honda has been ahead in such things, reducing some toxicities new vehicle purchasers face. It's often assumed that these chemicals are safe, but that is not at all the truth. Tests need to be done on the combined effect agglomerated chemicals present (the 275 chemical which can be used in new car interiors). And when combined with other toxic chemicals in the air, the food, clothing, skin products, etc., the toxic load can be devastating to a man, woman, children and animals.

Vehicle ratings are improving thanks to the reduction in the use of even these two, PVC and bromine-based flame retardants by some vehicle manufacturers.

Keeping a close watch on chemicals - OECD https://www.oecd.org/about/impact/keeping-close-watch-on-chemicals.htm
www.oecd.org › about › impact › keeping-close-watch-on-chemicals

By collaborating on chemicals testing through a common OECD system and standards, countries are able to better protect citizens, animals and the environment 

Global Automotive Declarable Substance List Goal is improvements in quality, safety and the reduction of environmental impact. As much as possible, these objectives should be achieved in a way to optimize consumer value.processing materials can have significant impact on these objectives.

Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL) Objectives
Major objectives of automotive product development include continuous improvements in quality, safety and the reduction of environmental impact throughout vehicle the life cycle. As much as possible, these objectives should be achieved in an efficient, cost effective way to optimize consumer value. A large number of construction, operational and processing materials are used in the automotive manufacturing chain and their selection and proper use can have significant impact on these objectives.

An important one in selection of chemicals to be used is customer health.

To meet these objectives, an ongoing dialogue and information flow within the global  automotive supply chain, including automobile manufacturers, tier suppliers and material suppliers is established; called the Global Automotive Stakeholder Group (GASG). Early information and dialogue up and down the supply chain will help facilitate compliance with current and future regulations, as well as take into account customer requirements to ensure sustainable products. 

The GASG organization consists of three regions, Americas, Europe/Africa/Middle East and Asia/Pacific. Regional membership and participation is open to all stakeholders in the automotive supply chain. Each of the three regions nominates six members to sit on the governing body of the GASG, called the Steering Committee (SC) exists to provide a transparent and open process for decision making.

The intent of GADSL is to become the company specific list for declaration of parts composition within the automotive industry. It provides a definitive list of substances requiring declaration with the target to minimize individual requirements and ensure cost-effective management of declaration practice along the complex supply chain. The scope is to cover declarable substances in the flow of information relevant to parts and materials supplied throughout the automotive value chain, from production to the end of life phase. The GADSL only covers substances that are expected to be present in a material or part that remains in the vehicle or part at point of sale.

Certain substances in vehicle parts may be a risk factor to human health and the environment. GADSL is used to enhance further dialogue and cooperation along the supply chain on the benefits and potential risks of certain substances or groups of substances in a specified use within vehicle.

2. Application of the GADSL
The use of certain substances in vehicle parts may be a risk factor to human health and the environment. Information exchange along the vehicle supply chain helps manage those potential risks while also meeting customer requirements. The GADSL is used to enhance further dialogue and cooperation along the supply chain on the benefits and potential risks of certain substances or groups of substances in a specified use within vehicle parts/materials. Declaration of a substance does not mean, however, that the substance is prohibited from being used in vehicle parts or is to be de-selected from use. Any declaration process using the GADSL must respect the framework formulated in this preface.

Definitions:
-Substances are chemical elements or chemical compounds as parts of materials or preparations
-Preparations Mixtures, composed of two or more substances. Chemical elements, chemical compounds or preparations thereof in finished state used to manufacture products/articles.
-Products/articles Materials which have been transformed during production to take a specific shape, surface or form which has a greater influence on their function than their chemical composition does.
-Component is an element of a vehicle that has a defined weight and shape.
-Parts: A manufactured object made up of one or more homogeneous material(s).

Criteria for Declarable Substances
The decision to list a substance on the GADSL is based on the following criteria:
...The substance should be expected to be present in a material or part in the vehicle. Either of the following conditions should apply:
...The substance is regulated or is projected to be regulated by a governmental agency or authority or,
...It is demonstrated, by testing under OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development) guidelines for testing chemicals, conducted under Good Laboratory Practice (according to the OECD Principles on Good Laboratory Practice as revised in 1997), that the substance may be associated with a significant hazard to human health and/or the environment and its presence in a material or part in a vehicle may create a significant risk to human health and/or the environment. Other scientifically valid methodology, based on the weight of evidence, may also be considered.

Declarable Substance Classification
A reportable substance when present in a material or part in a vehicle will be shown on the GADSL with a classification of 'P' or 'D', defined as follows: Depending on its specific application, the same substance could be classified “P” in one end use and “D” in another end use. When this is the case, both classifications for the substance will be shown on the GADSL with examples under the application column. Declaration thresholds are defined by specific application of the substance in automotive parts. Any reportable substance below the declaration level does not have to be reported. These levels, unless otherwise indicated, are 0.1 g/100g (weight %) of homogeneous materials, not on the total content in the component or assembly.
P = Prohibited. A substance designated 'P' is prohibited for all automotive uses in at least one region / market or may not exceed a regulated threshold limit for all automotive uses in at least one region / market.
D = Declarable. A substance designated 'D' must be declared if it exceeds the defined threshold limits.
D/P = Declarable or Prohibited. A substance designated as 'D/P' has both allowed uses and prohibited uses in at least one region/market. Substances marked D/P and P must also be declared if they are present above the stipulated threshold (e.g. 0.1%).

Reason Codes. Reason codes have been developed to explain why a substance has been included in the GADSL.
Each declarable substance will be listed with one of the following reason codes to facilitate dialog within the supply chain:
LR = Legally Regulated. A substance legally regulated because its use in a vehicle part or material poses a significant risk to health and or the environment.

Health Effects 
The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals is a collection of about 150 of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to identify and characterize potential hazards of chemicals. They are a set of tools for professionals, used primarily in regulatory safety testing and subsequent chemical and chemical product notification, chemical registration and in chemical evaluation. They can also be used for the selection and ranking of candidate chemicals during the development of new chemicals and products and in toxicology research.
This group of tests covers health effects. Refer especially to:
-Male hormones Test No. 458: Stably Transfected Human Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay for Detection of Androgenic Agonist and Antagonist Activity of Chemicals 
-Test No. 439: In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method
-Test No. 496: In vitro Macromolecular Test Method for Identifying Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage 
-Test No. 405: Acute Eye Irritation/Corrosion
-Test No. 443: Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study 
-Test No. 453: Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies

The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals are a unique tool for assessing the potential effects of chemicals on human health and the environment. OECD Series on Adverse Outcome Pathways. For more information, please contact: ehs.contact@oecd.org

OECD Series on Adverse Outcome Pathways (many adverse outcomes from chemicals here of which many are listed below under Toxic under CEPA and that which follows it)

An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) describes a logical sequence of causally linked events at different levels of biological organisation, which follows exposure to a chemical and leads to an adverse health effect in humans or wildlife. AOPs are the central element of a toxicological knowledge framework;
from *.

Adverse Outcome Pathway on Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation leading to early life stage mortality, via reduced VEGF Interference with endogenous developmental processes that are regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through sustained exogenous activation, causes molecular, structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in avian, mammalian and piscine embryos; this cardio toxicity ultimately leads to severe edema and embryo death in birds and fish and some strains of rat. There have been numerous proposed mechanisms of action for this toxicity profile, many of which include the dysregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This AOP describes the indirect suppression of VEGF expression through the sequestration of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) by AHR. ARNT is common dimerization partner for both AHR and hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-1?), which stimulates angiogenesis through the transcriptional regulation of VEGF. The suppression of VEGF thereby reduces cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell proliferation, altering cardiovascular morphology and reducing cardiac output, which ultimately leads to congestive heart failure and death. from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/oecd-series-on-adverse-outcome-pathways_2415170x

Adverse Outcome Pathway on Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation leading to uroporphyria 
Hepatic uroporphyria is a disorder where the disturbance of heme biosynthesis results in accumulation and excretion of uroporphyrin, heptacarboxyl and hexacarboxyl porphyrin, collectively referred to as highly carboxylated porphyrins (HCPs). The disorder is due to a homozygous mutation in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), an enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis pathway or may be chemically induced, which involves the inhibition of UROD. This AOP describes the linkages leading to chemically induced porphyria through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. AHR activation leads to the induction of cytochrome P450 1A2, a phase I metabolising enzyme, which in turn results in excessive oxidation of uroporphyrinogen. This oxidation produces a UROD inhibitor, preventing the conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coprouroporphyrinogen and increasing the synthesis of the UROD inhibitor in a positive feedback loop. The accumulation of uroporphyrinogen leads to its preferential oxidation and accumulation of HCP in various organs (Uroporphyria).

https://www.doctorsdata.com/urine-porphyrins/
Urine Porphyrins Abnormal levels of urinary porphyrins, oxidized metabolites of heme biosynthesis, are associated with genetic disorders, metabolic disturbances and diseases, anemias, oxidative stress and high-level exposure to toxic chemicals or metals.

Adverse Outcome Pathway on inhibition of Na+/I- symporter (NIS) leads to learning and memory impairment. The thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, maturation and function as they regulate the early key developmental processes. Normal human brain development and cognitive function relays on sufficient production of TH during the perinatal period. The function of Na+/I- symporter (NIS) is critical for the physiological production of TH levels in the serum. The present AOP describes causative links between inhibition of NIS function leading to the decreased levels of TH in the blood and consequently in the brain, causing learning and memory deficit in children. Learning and memory depend upon the coordinated action of different brain regions and neurotransmitter systems creating functionally integrated neural networks. Hippocampus and cortex are the most critical brain structures involved in the process of cognitive functions. The function of NIS and its essentiality for TH synthesis is well known across species, however, quantitative information of KERs is limited.

Refer also to Guidance Document on Good In Vitro Method Practices (GIVIMP) https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264304796-en
and Guidance Document on evaluating Chemicals for Endocrine Disruption https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264304741-en
and Series on Testing and Assessment: Testing for Endocrine Disrupters (*)

As of October 28, 2020 Toxic under CEPA
For the purposes of section 64 in Part 5 of CEPA 1999, a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity, such as; constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends or constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.
Brown, Stephen K and Min Cheng, 2007. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in New Car Interiors. They found that the amount of VOCs present is dependent upon the 'delivery time' of the car from the manufacturer. Those cars which didn't have a 'shelf life' at a dealership had the highest amounts of VOCs present. Those which had been on display outside had the lowest. The chemicals they recorded were:
• acetone + n-pentane
• n-Hexane + MEK (Methyl ethyl ketone)
• Benzene
• MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)
• Toluene
• m+p Xylene
• Styrene + o-xylene
• Ethylene glycol butyl ether
• 1,2,4 trimethylbenzene
• n-undecane 
• n-decane
• 2-propylheptanol
• n-dodecane
• ethylbenzene
• cyclohexanone
• n-heptane
Of these chemicals, they ranked them from most prevalent to least as follows:

Overall, the more dominant VOCs found in the new cars (highest to lowest concentrations) were toluene, acetone/pentane, o-xylene/styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, various C7–12 alkanes, ethylbenzene, n-hexane and ethylene glycol butyl ether.

They reported the following regarding the toxicity of the VOCs present:
Benzene is a category 1 IARC carcinogen (known human carcinogen) for which an annual exposure goal of 16 µg/m3 has been recommended (see Section 1.3). Since urban populations spend an average of one hour per day in car travel (Newton et al. 2000), these results indicate that car interiors can be contributors to total exposure to benzene.

Few environmental exposure goals are established for other VOCs. The NHMRC goal of 250 µg/m3 for any compound was exceeded for many VOCs in Cars 2 and 3. Toxic effects of some of these VOCs and ambient air goals (µg/m3 at 0oC/101kPa) based on these effects (Calabrese & Kenyon 1991) are:
• acetone: mucosal irritation (8-hour goal, 39,000)
• cyclohexanone: possible human carcinogen (annual goal, 180)
• ethylbenzene: systemic toxin (24-hour goal, 140); 
• MIBK: systemic toxin (8-hour goal, 540)
• n-hexane: neurotoxin (24-hour goal, 540);
• styrene: probable human carcinogen (annual goal, 29)
• toluene: central nervous system dysfunction (8-hour goal, 1600); xylene isomers: foetal development toxins (24-hour goals: o-xylene 310, m-xylene 3100, p-xylene 62).
It is seen that several of these goals may have been exceeded in the cars for several weeks after manufacture TVOC concentrations also occurred at levels that may affect occupants (see Section 1.2) for weeks to months after car purchase, although not for years. The effects that could be caused by this TVOC exposure include eye irritation, and performance and memory factors, all of which may be important car safety issues, as well as occupant health and comfort issues.

Note, however, that all of the above measurements were made in closed cars at low ambient temperatures. Lower concentrations may be expected with greater ventilation of the car interior, while higher concentrations may be expected under higher ambient temperatures. More detailed investigation of VOC concentrations under different operating conditions is needed to decide an appropriate test protocol for simulating occupant exposure to car interior pollutants.

They conclude the following:
High concentrations of VOCs were found in new cars, especially those reaching the market soon after manufacture, i.e with minimum path-to-market. The total VOC (TVOC) levels found have been observed previously to cause sensory irritation and performance and memory impairment to human subjects, showing that the pollution of new car interiors may be a safety issue. Several of the VOCs observed have potential toxic effects, an aspect that should be explored in further study under simulated conditions of car usage. The decay of TVOC concentrations was found to be exponential, at approximately 20% per week, with the NHMRC indoor air goal being reached after approximately 6 months.

The smell you smell in your new car is a bunch of chemicals you really don't want to be smelling. And, if you live where it's warm or with the heater on, more of them can affect your health.

Where are the organically certified for optimum health new and used vehicles? Why has this been avoided?

Under CEPA, both the Minister of Environment and Climate Change and the Minister of Health are responsible for developing a list of substances which must be assessed in a timely manner to determine if they are "toxic" or capable of becoming "toxic". This list is known as the Priority Substances List
Existing Substances Branch
Environment and Climate Change Canada
351 St. Joseph Blvd
Gatineau QC  K1A 0H3
Phone number: 1-800-567-1999 (in Canada) or 819-938-3232
Facsimile: 819-938-5212
e-mail: eccc.substances.eccc@canada.ca

Air pollution exacerbates health conditions in people who already suffer from chronic conditions such as heart and lung disease, or makes those who are vulnerable to its effects, such as children and the elderly more susceptible to illness. Air pollution may also contribute to the development of new cases of heart and lung disease.

In Canada, thousands of hospital visits and millions of days with restricted activity can be attributed to current levels of air pollution. As well, over 14,000 premature deaths each year are linked to air pollution. Air pollution includes indoor air pollution such as provided by toxic chemicals used in vehicle interiors.

Many of the goods and services we rely on either use or produce substances that may be harmful to the environment or to human health. We have learned that if we do not manage the risks associated with these substances adequately, we could be faced with problems that are either extremely costly or impossible to correct. Scientific studies show this is particularly true of substances that result from human activity and that are toxic and persistent, that is, they take a long time to break down and are bioaccumulative, collecting in living organisms. According to Dr. Pompa, toxins can be defined as anything that "does not belong in your body". Today we are exposed to a level of toxins like no other time! Your body has to get rid of these toxins. If your body doesn't rid itself  of toxins, we start bio-accumulating (stockpiling) them, ultimately causing physical manifestations of symptoms we should not be subject to.

As science cannot always accurately predict the effects that a substance will have on the environment or on human health, managing toxic substances effectively requires being proactive, taking a cost-effective approach to prevent pollution, rather than reacting after it has already occurred.

Toxic substances list: schedule 1 (shown to emphasize humans are being exposed to a plethora of toxins daily, which accumulate in the human system; we don't want to be in vehicles that add to that accumulation)

Updated Schedule 1 as of October 28, 2020
1. Chlorobiphenyls that have the molecular formula C12H(10-n)Cln in which "n" is greater than 2
2. Dodecachloropentacyclo [5.3.0.02,6.03,9.04,8] decane (Mirex)
3. Polybrominated biphenyls that have the molecular formula C12H(10-n)Brn in which "n" is greater than 2
4. Chlorofluorocarbon: totally halogenated chlorofluorocarbons that have the molecular formula CnClxF(2n+2-x)
5. Polychlorinated terphenyls that have a molecular formula C18H(14-n)Cln in which "n" is greater than 2
6. Asbestos
7. Lead
8. Mercury and its compounds
9. Vinyl chloride
10. Bromochlorodifluoromethane that has the molecular formula CF2BrCl
11. Bromotrifluoromethane that has the molecular formula CF3Br
12. Dibromotetrafluoroethane that has the molecular formula C2F4Br2
13. Fuel containing toxic substances that are dangerous goods within the meaning of section 2 of the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, 1992 and that
o (a)  are neither normal components of the fuel nor additives designed to improve the characteristics or the performance of the fuel or
o (b)  are normal components of the fuel or additives designed to improve the characteristics or performance of the fuels, but are present in quantities or concentrations greater than those generally accepted by industry standards
14. Dibenzo-para-dioxin that has the molecular formula of C12H8O2
15. Dibenzofuran that has the molecular formula C12H8O
16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins that have the molecular formula C12H(8-n)O2Clnin which "n" is greater than 2
17. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans that have the molecular formula C12H(8-n)OCln in which "n" is greater than 2
18. Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride) CCl4
19. 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) CCl3-CH3
20. Bromofluorocarbons other than those set out in items 10 to 12
21. Hydrobromofluorocarbons that have the molecular formula CnHxFyBr(2n+2-x-y) in which 0<n?3
22. Methyl bromide
23. Bis(chloromethyl) ether that has the molecular formula C2H4Cl2O
24. Chloromethyl methyl ether that has the molecular formula C2H5ClO
25. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons that have the molecular formula CnHxFyCl(2n+2-x-y) in which 0<n<3
26. Benzene that has the molecular formula C6H6
27. (4-Chlorophenyl)cyclopropylmethanone, O-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]oxime that has the molecular formula C17H15ClN2O3
28. Inorganic arsenic compounds
29. Benzidine and benzidine dihydrochloride, that have the molecular formula C12H12N2 and C12H12N2•2HCl, respectively
30. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
31. Inorganic cadmium compounds
32. Chlorinated wastewater effluents
33. Hexavalent chromium compounds
34. Creosote-impregnated waste materials from creosote-contaminated sites
35. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
36. 1,2-Dichloroethane
37. Dichloromethane
38. Effluents from pulp mills using bleaching
39. Hexachlorobenzene
40. Inorganic fluorides
41. Refractory ceramic fibre
42. Oxidic, sulphidic and soluble inorganic nickel compounds
43. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
44. Tetrachloroethylene
45. Trichloroethylene
46. Tributyltetradecylphosphonium chloride that has the molecular formula C26H56P•Cl
47. Bromochloromethane, that has the molecular formula CH2BrCl
48. Acetaldehyde, which has the molecular formula C2H4O
49. 1,3-Butadiene, which has the molecular formula C4H6
50. Acrylonitrile, which has the molecular formula C3H3N
51. Respirable particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns
52. Acrolein, which has the molecular formula C3H4O
53. Ammonia dissolved in water
54. Nonylphenol and its ethoxylates
55. Effluents from textile mills that use wet processing
56. Inorganic chloramines, which have the molecular formula NHnCl(3-n) where n = 0, 1 or 2
57. Ethylene oxide, which has the molecular formula H2COCH2
58. Formaldehyde, which has the molecular formula CH2O
59. N-Nitrosodimethylamine, which has the molecular formula C2H6N2O
60. Gaseous ammonia, which has the molecular formula NH3(g)
61. Ozone, which has the molecular formula O3
62. Nitric oxide, which has the molecular formula NO
63. Nitrogen dioxide, which has the molecular formula NO2
64. Sulphur dioxide, which has the molecular formula SO2
65. Volatile organic compounds that participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions, excluding the following:
o (a)  methane
o (b)  ethane
o (c)  methylene chloride (dichloromethane)
o (d)  1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform)
o (e)  1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)
o (f)  trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11)
o (g)  dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)
o (h)  chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22)
o (i)  trifluoromethane (HFC-23)
o (j)  1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114)
o (k)  chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115)
o (l)  1,1,1-trifluoro-2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123)
o (m)  1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)
o (n)  1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b)
o (o)  1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b)
o (p)  2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124)
o (q)  pentafluoroethane (HFC-125)
o (r)  1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134)
o (s)  1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a)
o (t)  1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)
o (u)  parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF)
o (v)  cyclic, branched or linear completely methylated siloxanes
o (w)  acetone
o (x)  perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene)
o (y)  3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225ca)
o (z)  1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225cb)
o (z.1)  1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC 43-10mee)
o (z.2)  difluoromethane (HFC-32)
o (z.3)  ethylfluoride (HFC-161)
o (z.4)  1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236fa)
o (z.5)  1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ca)
o (z.6)  1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ea)
o (z.7)  1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb)
o (z.8)  1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa)
o (z.9)  1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea)
o (z.10)  1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc)
o (z.11)  chlorofluoromethane (HCFC-31)
o (z.12)  1-chloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-151a)
o (z.13)  1,2-dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123a)
o (z.14)  1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-methoxy-butane (C4F9OCH3)
o (z.15)  2-(difluoromethoxymethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OCH3)
o (z.16)  1-ethoxy-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluorobutane (C4F9OC2H5)
o (z.17)  2-(ethoxydifluoromethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OC2H5)
o (z.18)  methyl acetate and perfluorocarbon compounds that fall into the following classes, namely
1. cyclic, branched or linear completely fluorinated alkanes
2. cyclic, branched, or linear completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations
3. cyclic, branched or linear completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations, or
4. sulfur containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine
o (z.19)  1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxy-propane (HFE-7000)
o (z.20)  3-ethoxy-1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dodecafluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl) hexane (HFE-7500)
o (z.21)  1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea)
o (z.22)  methyl formate (HCOOCH3)
o (z.23)  t-butyl acetate
o (z.24)  1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-pentane (HFE-7300)
o (z.25)  propylene carbonate
o (z.26)  dimethyl carbonate
o (z.27)  trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze)
o (z.28)  HCF2OCF2H (HFE-134)
o (z.29)  HCF2OCF2OCF2H (HFE-236cal2)
o (z.30)  HCF2OCF2CF2OCF2H (HFE-338pcc13)
o (z.31)  HCF2OCF2OCF2CF2OCF2H
o (z.32)  2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf)
o (z.33)  trans 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene [HCFO-1233zd(E)]; and
o (z.34)  2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol
66. Hexachlorobutadiene, which has the molecular formula C4Cl6
67. Particulate matter containing metals that is released in emissions from copper smelters or refineries, or from both
68. Particulate matter containing metals that is released in emissions from zinc plants
69. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which has the molecular formula C14H9Cl5
70. 2-butoxyethanol, which has the molecular formula C6H14O2
71. 2-methoxyethanol, which has the molecular formula C3H8O2
72. Tetrachlorobenzenes, which have the molecular formula C6H2Cl4
73. Pentachlorobenzene, which has the molecular formula C6HCl5
74. Carbon dioxide, which has the molecular formula CO2
75. Methane, which has the molecular formula CH4
76. Nitrous oxide, which has the molecular formula N2O
77. Hydrofluorocarbons that have the molecular formula CnHxF(2n+2-x) in which 0<n<6
78. The following perfluorocarbons:
o (a)  those that have the molecular formula CnF2n+2 in which 0<n<7
o (b)  octafluorocyclobutane, which has the molecular formula C4F8
79. Sulphur hexafluoride, which has the molecular formula SF6
80. Methanone, bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-, which has the molecular formula C17H20N2O
81. 2-Butanone, oxime, which has the molecular formula C4H9NO
82. n-Butyl glycidyl ether, which has the molecular formula C7H14O2
83. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers that have the molecular formula C12H(10-n)BrnO in which 4?n?10
84. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and its salts
85. Compounds that contain one of the following groups: C8F17SO2, C8F17SO3 or C8F17SO2N
86. Methyloxirane, which has the molecular formula C3H6O
87. Ethyloxirane, which has the molecular formula C4H8O
88. Naphthalene, which has the molecular formula C10H8
89. Toluene diisocyanates, which have the molecular formula C9H6N2O2
90. 1,2-Benzenediol, which has the molecular formula C6H6O2
91. 1,4-Benzenediol, which has the molecular formula C6H6O2
92. Hexane, 1,6-diisocyanato-, homopolymer, reaction products with alpha-fluoro-omega-2-hydroxyethyl-poly(difluoro- methylene), C16-20-branched alcohols and 1-octadecanol
93. 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, hexadecyl ester, polymers with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, gamma-omega-perfluoro-C10-16-alkyl acrylate and stearyl methacrylate
94. 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylpropyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate and 2,5-furandione, gamma-omega-perfluoro-C8-14-alkyl esters, tert-Bu benzenecarboperoxoate-initiated
95. 2-propen-1-ol reaction products with pentafluoroiodoethane tetrafluoroethylene telomer, dehydroiodinated, reaction products with epichlorohydrin and triethylenetetramine
96. Phenol, 4,4? -(1-methylethylidene)bis-, which has the molecular formula C15H16O2
97. Thiourea, which has the molecular formula CH4N2S
98. 1,3-Butadiene, 2-methyl-, which has the molecular formula C5H8
99. Oxirane, (chloromethyl)-, which has the molecular formula C3H5ClO
100. Colour Index Pigment Yellow 34
101. Colour Index Pigment Red 104
102. Cyclotetrasiloxane, octamethyl-, which has the molecular formula C8H24O4Si4
103. Phenol, 2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, which has the molecular formula C18H30O
104. Ethanol, 2-methoxy-, acetate, which has the molecular formula C5H10O3
105. 1-Propanol, 2-methoxy-, which has the molecular formula C4H10O2
106. 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[(4-methyl-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-, which has the molecular formula C17H13N3O3
107. Ethanol, 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-, which has the molecular formula C5H12O3
108. Sulfuric acid, diethyl ester, which has the molecular formula C4H10O4S
109. Sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester, which has the molecular formula C2H6O4S
111. 2-Propenamide, which has the molecular formula C3H5NO
112. Ethanol, 2-chloro-, phosphate (3:1), which has the molecular formula C6H12Cl3O4P
113. Tributyltins, which contain the grouping (C4H9)3Sn
114. Tetrabutyltins, which have the molecular formula (C4H9)4Sn
115. Benzene, (chloromethyl)-, which has the molecular formula C7H7Cl
116. Propane, 2-nitro-, which has the molecular formula C3H7NO2
117. Benzene, 1-methyl-2-nitro-, which has the molecular formula C7H7NO2
118. Phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-methylpropyl)-, which has the molecular formula C18H30O
119. Methylium, [4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]bis[4-(ethylamino)3-methylphenyl]-, acetate, which has the molecular formula C27H34N3.C2H3O2
120. Chlorinated alkanes that have the molecular formula CnHxCl(2n+2-x)
121. Benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-, which has the molecular formula C11H14O2
122. Vanadium pentoxide, which has the molecular formula V2O5
123. Oxirane, 2,2?,2?,2??-[1,2-ethanediylidenetetrakis (4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)]tetrakis-, which has the molecular formula C38H38O8
124. Bromic acid, potassium salt, which has the molecular formula KBrO3
125. Polychlorinated naphthalenes, which have the molecular formula C10H8-nCln in which 'n' is greater than 1
126. Hydrazine, which has the molecular formula N2H4
127. Hexabromocyclododecane, which has the molecular formula C12H18Br6
128. Quinoline, which has the molecular formula C9H7N
129. Perfluorooctanoic acid, which has the molecular formula C7F15CO2H, and its salts
130. Compounds that consist of a perfluorinated alkyl group that has the molecular formula CnF2n+1 in which n = 7 or 8 and that is directly bonded to any chemical moiety other than a fluorine, chlorine or bromine atom
131. Chlorine enters the body through inhalation or through the skin and reacts with water (the body is about 90% water) producing corrosive acids and detergent byproducts that damage cells on contact. Chlorine is toxic enough to be classified as a chemical weapon and is associated with dementia, increasing asthma episodes and eye and skin irritation.
132. Perfluorocarboxylic acids that have the molecular formula CnF2n+1CO2H in which 8 ? n ? 20 and their salts
133. Compounds that consist of a perfluorinated alkyl group that has the molecular formula CnF2n+1 in which 8 ? n ? 20 and that is directly bonded to any chemical moiety other than a fluorine, chlorine or bromine atom
134. Plastic microbeads that are ? 5 mm in size
135. The following petroleum and refinery gases:
o (a)  tail gas (petroleum), catalytic polymerized naphtha fractionation stabilizer (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the fractionation stabilization products that result from the polymerization of naphtha - consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C1 through C4)
o (b)  fuel gases (a combination of light gases consisting predominantly of hydrogen or low molecular weight hydrocarbons or both)
o (c)  hydrocarbons, C2-C4, C3-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from a treating process to remove sulphur and other acidic compounds - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C2 through C4, predominantly propane and propene)
o (d)  gases (petroleum), butane splitter overhead (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of the butane stream - consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C3 through C4)
o (e)  gases (petroleum), catalytic cracked gas oil depropanizer bottom, C4-rich acid-free (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the fractionation of catalytic cracked gas oil hydrocarbon stream and treated to remove hydrogen sulfide and other acidic components - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C3 through C5, predominantly C4)
o (f)  gases (petroleum), catalytic cracked naphtha debutanizer bottom, C3-C5-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the stabilization of catalytic cracked naphtha - consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C3 through C5)
o (g)  gases (petroleum), catalytic cracked naphtha depropanizer overhead, C3-rich acid-free (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the fractionation of catalytic cracked hydrocarbons and treated to remove acidic impurities - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C2 through C4, predominantly C3)
o (h)  gases (petroleum), catalytic cracker, C1-C5-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of products that result from a catalytic cracking process - consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C1 through C6, predominantly C1 through C5)
o (i)  gases (petroleum), catalytic polymerized naphtha stabilizer overhead, C2-C4-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the fractionation stabilization of catalytic polymerized naphtha - consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C2 through C6, predominantly C2 through C4)
o (j)  gases (petroleum), catalytic reformed naphtha stripper overhead (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the stabilization of catalytic reformed naphtha - consisting of hydrogen and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C4)
o (k)  gases (petroleum), deethanizer overhead (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of the gas and gasoline fractions that result from a catalytic cracking process - consisting predominantly of ethane and ethene)
o (l)  gases (petroleum), deisobutanizer tower overhead (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the atmospheric distillation of a butane-butene stream - consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C3 through C4)
o (m)  gases (petroleum), gas concentration reabsorber distillation (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of products from combined gas streams in a gas concentration reabsorber - consisting predominantly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C1 through C3)
o (n)  gases (petroleum), hydrogen-rich (a complex combination - separated as a gas from hydrocarbon gases by chilling - consisting predominantly of hydrogen with small amounts of carbon monoxide, nitrogen, methane and C2 hydrocarbons)
o (o)  gases (petroleum), recycle, hydrogen-rich (a complex combination - obtained from recycled reactor gases - consisting predominantly of hydrogen with small amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C1 through C5)
o (p)  gases (petroleum), reformer make-up, hydrogen-rich (a complex combination - obtained from the reformers - consisting predominantly of hydrogen with small amounts of carbon monoxide and aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (q)  gases (petroleum), thermal cracking distillation (a complex combination - obtained from the distillation of products that result from a thermal cracking process - consisting of hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C6)
o (r)  tail gas (petroleum), catalytic cracker refractionation absorber (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the refractionation of products that result from a catalytic cracking process - consisting of hydrogen and hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C3)
o (s)  tail gas (petroleum), cracked distillate hydrotreater separator (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained by treating cracked distillates with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst - consisting of hydrogen and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (t)  tail gas (petroleum), saturate gas plant mixed stream, C4-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the fractionation stabilization of straight-run naphtha, distillation tail gas and catalytic reformed naphtha stabilizer tail gas - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C3 through C6, predominantly butane and isobutane)
o (u)  tail gas (petroleum), vacuum residue thermal cracker (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the thermal cracking of vacuum residues - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (v)  hydrocarbons, C3-C4-rich, petroleum distillates (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation and condensation of crude oil - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C3 through C5, predominantly C3 and C4)
o (w)  gases (petroleum), hydrocracking depropanizer off, hydrocarbon-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of products that result from a hydrocracking process - consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C4)
o (x)  gases (petroleum), light straight-run naphtha stabilizer off (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the stabilization of light straight-run naphtha - consisting of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C2 through C6)
o (y)  gases (petroleum), reformer effluent high-pressure flash drum off (a complex combination - obtained from the high-pressure flashing of the effluent from the reforming reactor - consisting predominantly of hydrogen with small amounts of methane, ethane and propane)
o (z)  hydrocarbons, C1-C4 (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from thermal cracking and absorber operations and from the distillation of crude oil - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C4 and boiling in the range of approximately -164°C to -0.5°C)
o (z.1)  hydrocarbons, C1-C4, sweetened (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained by subjecting hydrocarbon gases to a sweetening process to convert mercaptans or to remove acidic impurities - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C4 and boiling in the range of approximately -164°C to -0.5°C)
o (z.2)  hydrocarbons, C1-C3 (a complex combination of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C3 and boiling in the range of approximately -164°C to -42°C)
o (z.3)  gases (petroleum), C1-C5, wet (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of crude oil or the cracking of tower gas oil or both - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (z.4)  gases (petroleum), secondary absorber off, fluidized catalytic cracker overhead fractionater (a complex combination - obtained from the fractionation of the overhead products that result from a catalytic cracking process in the fluidized catalytic cracker - consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C3)
o (z.5)  gases (petroleum), alkylation feed (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the catalytic cracking of gas oil - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C3 through C4)
o (z.6)  petroleum products, refinery gases (a complex combination consisting predominantly of hydrogen with small amounts of methane, ethane and propane)
o (z.7)  gases (petroleum), refinery (a complex combination - obtained from various petroleum refining operations - consisting of hydrogen and hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C3)
o (z.8)  gases (petroleum), hydrotreated sour kerosine depentanizer stabilizer off (a complex combination - obtained from the depentanizer stabilization of hydrotreated kerosine - consisting predominantly of hydrogen, methane, ethane and propane with small amounts of nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C4 through C5)
o (z.9)  gases (petroleum), crude oil fractionation off (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the fractionation of crude oil - consisting of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (z.10)  gases (petroleum), fluidized catalytic cracker fractionation off (a complex combination - obtained from the fractionation of the overhead products that result from a fluidized catalytic cracking process - consisting of hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (z.11)  gases (petroleum), heavy distillate hydrotreater desulfurization stripper off (a complex combination - stripped from the liquid product that results from a heavy distillate hydrotreater desulfurization process - consisting of hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (z.12)  gases (petroleum), preflash tower off, crude distillation (a complex combination - produced from the first tower used in the distillation of crude oil - consisting of nitrogen and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C5)
o (z.13)  gases (petroleum), straight-run stabilizer off (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the fractionation of the liquid produced from the first tower used in the distillation of crude oil - consisting of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C1 through C4)
o (z.14)  tail gas (petroleum), catalytic hydrodesulfurized naphtha separator (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the catalytic hydrodesulfurization of naphtha - consisting of hydrogen, methane, ethane and propane)
o (z.15)  gases (petroleum), C3-C4 (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of products that result from the cracking of crude oil - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C3 through C4, predominantly propane and propene, and boiling in the range of approximately -51°C to -1°C)
o (z.16)  gases (petroleum), C3-C4, isobutane-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C3 through C6, predominantly butane and isobutane - consisting of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C3 through C4, predominantly isobutane)
o (z.17)  gases (petroleum), C4-rich (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of products that result from a catalytic fractionation process - consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers in the range of C3 through C5, predominantly C4)
o (z.18)  hydrocarbons, C1-C4, debutanizer fraction (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from a debutanizing process - having carbon numbers in the range of C1 through C4)
o (z.19)  petroleum gases, liquefied (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained from the distillation of crude oil - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C3 through C7 and boiling in the range of approximately -40°C to 80°C) and
o (z.20)  petroleum gases, liquefied, sweetened (a complex combination of hydrocarbons - obtained by subjecting liquefied petroleum gases to a sweetening process to convert mercaptans or to remove acidic impurities - consisting of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C3 through C7 and boiling in the range of approximately -40°C to 80°C)
136. Hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, which has the molecular formula C22H42O4
137. Reaction products of 2-propanone with diphenylamine
138. 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[4-(phenylazo)phenyl]azo]-, which has the molecular formula C22H16N4O
139. Fuel Oil No. 2
140. Natural gas condensates (a complex combination of hydrocarbons primarily in the carbon range of C5 to C15 that are condensed during production at a well head, in a natural gas processing plant, natural gas pipeline or straddle plant), including any of their liquid distillates that are primarily in the carbon range of C5 to C15
141. Phenol, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-, which has the molecular formula C12H7Cl3O2
142. Acetamide, N-[4-[(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]-, which has the molecular formula C15H15N3O2
143. Cobalt and soluble cobalt compounds
144. N,N?-mixed phenyl and tolyl derivatives of 1,4-benzenediamine
145. Benzene, 1-chloro-2-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4- chlorophenyl)ethyl]-, which has the molecular formula C14H10Cl4
147. Benzene, 1,1?-methylenebis[4-isocyanato-, which has the molecular formula C15H10N2O2
148. Benzene, 1,1?-methylenebis[2-isocyanato-, which has the molecular formula C15H10N2O2
149. Benzene, 1-isocyanato-2-[(4-isocyanatophenyl)methyl]-, which has the molecular formula C15H10N2O2
150. Benzene, 1,1?-methylenebis[isocyanato- (non-isomeric-specific), which has the molecular formula C15H10N2O2
151. Isocyanic acid, polymethylenepolyphenylene ester, which has the molecular formula C15H10N2O2•[C8H5NO]n in which 0 ? n ? 4
In addition
• 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
• 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
• 1,2-Dichlorobenzene
• 1,2-Dichloroethane
• 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
• 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
• 3,5-Dimethylaniline
• Benzene
• Benzidine
• Bis (2-chloroethyl) ether
• Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
• Bis (chloromethyl) ether
• Chlorinated paraffins
• Chlorinated wastewater effluents
• Chlorobenzene
• Chloromethyl methyl ether
• Creosote-contaminated sites
• Dibutyl phthalate
• Dichloromethane
• Di-n-octyl phthalate
• Effluents from pulp mills using bleaching
• Hexachlorobenzene
• Hexavalent chromium compounds
• Inorganic arsenic compounds
• Inorganic cadmium compounds
• Inorganic fluorides
• Methyl methacrylate
• Methyl tertiary-butyl ether
• Organotin compounds
• Oxidic, sulphidic and soluble, inorganic nickel compounds
• Pentachlorobenzene
• Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins
• Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans
• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
• Refractory ceramic fibre
• Styrene
• Tetrachlorobenzenes
• Tetrachloroethylene
• Toluene
• Trichlorobenzenes
• Trichloroethylene
• Used crankcase oils
• Xylenes
• 1,3-Butadiene
• 2-Methoxy Ethanol, 2-Ethoxy Ethanol, 2-Butoxy Ethanol
• Acetaldehyde
• Acrolein
• Acrylonitrile
• Aluminum Chloride, Aluminum Nitrate, Aluminum Sulphate
• Ammonia in the Aquatic Environment
• Butylbenzylphthalate (BBP)
• Carbon Disulfide
• Chloroform
• Ethylene Glycol
• Ethylene Oxide
• Formaldehyde
• Hexachlorobutadiene (HBCD)
• Inorganic Chloramines
• N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF)
• N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)
• Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylates (NPE)
• Phenol
• Releases from Primary and Secondary Copper Smelters and Copper Refineries
• Releases from Rrimary and Secondary Zinc Smelters and Zinc Refineries
• Releases of Radionuclides from Nuclear Facilities (Effects on Non-human Species)
• Respirable Particulate Matter Less than or Equal to 10 Microns (PM-10)
• Road Salts
• Textile Mill Effluents

Formaldehyde is also used as an ingredient in a wide number of household products and building materials.

Many of those products and materials seep or "outgas" formaldehyde gas. And that dangerous gas can accumulate in the air inside vehicles and buildings.

The formaldehyde gas that builds up inside your house isn't enough to pickle you. After all, the clear liquid in the biology-specimen jar was the straight stuff. But even at levels as low as 0.10 parts formaldehyde to every one million parts of air in your vehicle or house, that crummy feeling you have all the time could be your house and/or vehicle making you sick.

"Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that indoor air pollution . . . may pose serious acute and chronic risks", the Environmental Protection Agency reported to U.S.Congress two years ago. And most indoor air-quality experts agree that the number-one problem is the same stuff as in that pickling jar. 

VOC's:
Formaldehyde is one of an extended family of chemicals referred to as volatile organic compounds (VOC's). The 'organic' means they contain carbon in their structure. The 'volatile' means that the compounds vaporize -- become a gas -- at normal room temperatures. If you left the lid off that jar, all the liquid would eventually evaporate and become part of the mixture of gases that make up air.

What does exposure to formaldehyde in your indoor air do to you? An estimated 10 to 20 percent of the population is very sensitive to formaldehyde, showing symptoms at extremely low levels. Levels of formaldehyde as low as 0.10 parts per million (ppm) can cause eye, nose and throat irritation, coughing, skin rashes, headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and nosebleeds. Some people develop allergic reactions. Some people -- especially children -- develop asthma and chronic bronchitis.

What's Toyota done? From Toyota 2014 North American Environmental Report.

CABIN VOCS
Materials in the vehicle interior, such as plastics, leather, textiles, glues, sealants and additives, can emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) even after manufacturing. This is commonly recognized as the 'new car smell'. We work with suppliers to develop alternatives that emit lower levels of VOCs in the vehicle cabin. For example, we developed new tape systems to reduce toluene emissions. More recently, we have been working with suppliers on reducing formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which form during leather retanning and finishing.

The Prius, Prius Plug–in Hybrid, Prius c, Prius v and Camry Hybrid offer available SofTex-trimmed heated front seats. SofTex material weighs about half as much as genuine leather and its manufacturing process generates 99 percent fewer VOCs than that of conventional synthetic leather. Toyota's Materials Engineering Department has been studying low VOC paints in the cured form for interior components. We generally use waterborne paints due to their lower VOC content, but studies have shown some waterborne paints contain residual amounts of VOCs, such as aldehydes, in the cured form. We identified several paints with a negligible contribution to the overall VOCs of plastic parts. Those paints are already in use by Toyota for interior parts and we plan to increase their use in the future.

Developed a replacement for decaBDE that meets the federal motor vehicle safety standard FMVSS302 on flammability of interior materials. 

Question: What chemicals comprise the replacement?

Do your part to improve environmental performance by demanding vehicle manufacturers eliminate anything harmful in any way to the health of purchasers of vehicles.

Manufacturers support environmental programs that help strengthen diverse communities across North America, not just with money, but also with our their efforts and initiatives. 

BUT, NOTHING SAID HERE REGARDING OPTIMUM HEALTH OF PURCHASERS IN RESPECT TO 'IN CABIN' TOXICITY. Also nothing said about textile dyeing safety. Why are they avoiding these concerns?

Recommendation to those purchasing a new vehicle:
Some auto dealers allow for a one week trial, where if unsatisfied, they will accept the vehicle retured by you. That's a decent time if you're going to be in the vehicle enough time with your family. Otherwise, a two week trial may be needed.

Recommendation to vehicle manufacturers: Provide for vehicle interiors that are toxic free, that is, free of poisonous chemicals.

Recommendation. Follow principles of the Canadian Disclosure Guidelines, such as:

Full Disclosure
The term full disclosure in the legal sense often applies to laws that level the playing field between people who are entering into a contract. This leveling is important because it gives people an opportunity to
make a reasoned decision on whether to enter a contract based on full knowledge of the situation. In some cases, violating full disclosure laws, where they exist, can either void the contract or create difficult
circumstances. This type of law most applies to the world of real estate and to laws relating to marriage and prenuptial agreements. In most cases, full disclosure means revealing all that is known so a person enters the agreement with full knowledge of what that entry entails. Full Disclosure is a requirement that the whole truth must be told before a purchase is made or a contract is signed, so that the purchaser or signer is fully informed about the consequences of his/her decision. Full disclosure first, then an agreement can be knowingly signed knowingly and free from deceit. Especially full disclosure must occur if there is any risk to health.

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