transformation of the mandibular.(lower
of the theriodont reptiles.(reptiles
to have been the ancestors of mammals).does
not support it; direct observation here and now of the genesis.(beginning).of
a hereditary adaptation is nonexistent, except, as we have stated, in the
case of bacteria and insects preadapted to resist viruses
or drugs. The formation of the eye, the inner ear, of cestodes.(flatworms;
the whale, etc., does not seem possible by way of preadaptation."
Arthur Koestler in.Janus:
A Summing Up, Random House, New York, 1978, pp. 184,185,."the
educated public continues to believe that Darwin
has provided all the relevant
answers by the magic formula of random.mutation
selection, quite unaware of the fact that random mutations turned out
to be irrelevant
and natural selection a tautology."
Steven M. Stanley, Department
of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,
USA. 'A theory of evolution above the species level'. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Science USA vol. 72-2, February 1975, p. 646."Gradual
evolutionary change by
natural selection operates so slowly within established species
that it cannot account for the major features of evolution."
David M. Raup, Curator of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History,
Chicago, 'Conflicts between Darwin and paleontology'..Field
Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 50 (1), January 1979, p.23."Instead
of finding the gradual unfolding of life, what geologists
of Darwin's time and geologists of the present day actually find is a highly
uneven or jerky
record; that is, species appear in the sequence
very suddenly, show little or no change during their existence in the record,
then abruptly go out of the record. And it is not always clear, in fact
it's rarely clear, that the descendants
were actually better adapted
than their predecessors.
In other words, biological
improvement is hard to find."