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Based on Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary
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The Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald.(1815-1891)
erroneously called a ''father" of Canada's defective confederation claim; Lord Monck came back to Canada from Britain, as a Corporation Sole, a Governor General.

Governor Generals had tremendous powers. His first act upon opening Parliament in Canada was to announce that John A. Macdonald had been granted the title of "Sir". Sir John was now a member of England's Privy Council and soon Lord Monck would appoint Sir John prime minister of Canada, the first prime minister of Canada under Britain and from the Conservative Party.

Sir John was made a member of the.Tribunal.or Board of Arbitration.(the decisions from which were incorporated into the Treaty of Washington of the same date; the outcome of the meeting) to convene in Washington May 8, 1871 as it was desired by Britain that he use his best endeavours to settle with the United States the disputes that demanded attention.

Sir John was diverted by the British to carry out Imperial policy. Sir John later said (from Dominion Archives),.in attesting to no confederation."Honors should only be granted for a service performed for the Imperial Government.....All these honors were conferred upon myself and the other gentlemen on account of the prominent part we had taken in carrying out the.Imperial.policy".(showing that John was an instrument of Great Britain, not any 'father' of a supposed Canadian confederation).

In carrying out Britain's wishes for settlement with the United States, John Macdonald set aside his plan for federal union. Also at this time he got married to Susan Agnes Bernard, daughter of the Rt. Hon. Montague Bernard. Alexander Mackenzie, a Liberal, succeeded Macdonald..comprised from Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Magna Carta.(means "Great Charter")
a document (the document Magna Carta) sealed by King John of England on.June 15, 1215, in which he made a series of promises to his subjects that he would govern England and deal with his vassals according to the customs of feudal law. But he was a corrupt king. The story is told in the movies Robin Hood with Russell Crowe and Ironclad I & II.
   Over the course of centuries, these promises have required governments in England (and in countries influenced by English tradition).to follow the law in dealing with their citizens and became know as Common Law, including the need, stated in the Magna Carta (1215), for.taxes to have the consent of the taxed.(this is.thought by Canadians.to be as such, but is circumvented constantly, in contradiction of what has been purported to the public. Governments since continue to not follow what is in this so-called constitution.{for it certainly was.not a true constitution.of the people in any way whatsoever}).

Canada really is without a document that represents.(that's re-present, or, 'present again', meaning, coming from the people to those the people are controlling and that is, a federal government of.their.creation).the wishes of her people and just what do you call any government that rules as it likes with disregard as shown by tricks recent, present, and in the past? Are they oligarchical or communistic, and though there may be a difference between the two in function, is there in effect?)

The Magna Carta was incorporated into a document purported to be a constitution for Canada (when Canada already had one created under Sessional Papers 18 and didn't know it {thanks for nothing all you Canadian politicians of times past who understood, but didn't make the truth known to people in the nation about these things that are important to all Canadians future}) and of course, as mentioned, even the invalid one that was concocted is not followed by Canada's government.

The Magna Carta has guarantees applicable today to nations that have incorporated it into their constitutions (such as the true US Constitution), not the one they presently have, that citizens' life, liberty and property were not to deprived of (some restrictions apply).

The Magna Carta remains a major document in the history of individual liberty. The document establishes the principle that no person, not even the king, is above the law. More specifically, this means that.the government must follow its own laws in its dealings with its citizens, just as citizens must obey the law.in their dealings with other citizens.(welcome to Canada where there is one standard for the fed and another, by the fed, for citizens; now what would you call an administration like this?)

King John of England had spent the years since the loss of Normandy and Anjou in preparation for a large scale military campaign to recover lands from Philip II. To raise money for the campaign,.John demanded and imposed more and higher taxes and services from his subjects than ever before.without consent of the people to be affected by his decisions, which was a violation of feudal law and custom..Little did he know that any sovereign country can create its own currency and that, free of any load factor called interest.

See the movie Robin Hood with Russell Crowe, a big budget historical presentation.

In addition, he ruled very harshly, fearing disloyalty from the English barons.

His campaign to recover his lands in France failed disastrously. When John returned to England to collect even more money, many ofthe English barons revolted. The rebel lords captured London but did not defeat John's forces decisively. By the spring of 1215, a stalemate approached and the two sides began to negotiate. The Magna Carta was the result of these discussions, and John agreed to it in 1215 at Runnymede, a meadow near Windsor.

The Magna Carta of 1215 contains 63 clauses. The first restates the charter that John issued in 1214, which had granted liberties to the Church. In many clauses John promises to be less harsh in enforcing his feudal rights on the barons, and another clause states that the barons must grant to their tenants all the feudal concessions that the king has made to them. Many clauses concern the legal system; in these John promises to provide good and fair justice in various ways.

The last few clauses concern enforcement of the document. 

The two most important clauses of Magna Carta are among the legal clauses. Clause 40 promises, "To no one will we sell, to no one will we deny or delay right or justice." This clause establishes the principle of equal access to the courts for all citizens without exorbitant fees. In clause 39, the king promises, "No free man shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised or outlawed or exiled or in any way destroyed, nor will we go or send against him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land." This clause establishes that the king would follow legal procedure before he punished someone. Historians have debated at length the meaning in 1215 of "by lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land," and who exactly was covered by the term "free man." By the later 14th century, however, statutes interpreting the Magna Carta equated "judgment of peers" with trial by jury.(trial by jury of one's peers for any case {cases under Common Law require a jury.(see Golden Rule and CommonLawCourt.com).which did not exist in criminal cases in 1215). Other statutes rephrased "by the law of the land" as "by due process of law." These later statutes also substituted "no one" or "no man of any sort or condition" for "no free man," which extended the protections of the clause to all the king's subjects.

These protections were cited in many founding documents of the American colonies and were incorporated into the Constitution of the United States.

Forces That Shaped The Constitution: In 1774 the Parliament of Great Britain capped a series of its abuses against the American colonies by imposing.a tax on tea.imports to the colonies.(We're mad as hell, and we're not going to take it any more!–they were finished with Britain, but they were fooled by the framers of the US Constitution; today, they are the best of friends, and that's so nice!)

The colonies quickly agreed to convene a Continental Congress, which in 1776 appointed two committees; one to draft the Declaration of Independence and the other to prepare a "form of confederation" among the colonies. In 1778 this second committee produced.the Articles of Confederation. They took effect in 1781 when Maryland, the last holdout state, ratified them.

The Articles of Confederation,.the first true constitution of the United States, established a league of friendship among the states, but not a political union..Each state remained separate and sovereign (under self rule). Too bad it didn't stay that way.

The central government consisted of a one chamber Congress, in which.each state had a single vote..Congress had few powers, lacking even the authority to impose taxes..Any.congressional action required the approval of 9 of the 13 states..The government had no president and no central court.

After numerous votes settled the details, a committee on style and revision was assigned in to put the final results in language to submit to the people for ratification. Two political dignitaries had great influence on the creation of the Constitution.John Locke.(1632-1704), an important British political philosopher, had a large impact through his.Second Treatise of Government.(1690). But many others were against it, and the hasty methods the sculptors (actually, scalpers of the Articles of Confederation) were using to push it through with little consideration. And welcome to today and legislation that is similarly enacted.

Locke argued.that sovereignty.resides in individuals,.not rulers. A political state, he said, emerged from a social contract among the people, who consent to government in order to preserve their lives, liberties, and property. In the words ofthe Declaration of Independence, which drew heavily on Locke, governments derive  "their just powers from the consent of the governed". (but won't if the people allow loose controls)

The framers of the U.S. Constitution made it look as if the Constitution was above legislative power, indeed.above all governmental powers. But it was surreptitiously done.

The Constitution, particularly the Supremacy Clause of Article VI, establishes the "rule of law", the idea that.the government itself, including the president and Congress,.must abide by the law the individual states agreed and set for the federal government to follow

The Constitution had to be ratified.by nine states before it could take effect.

The Constitution spells outin six articles (sections).the powers of the federal government and the states.(the Constitution does not include the term separation of powers). The first three articles establish the separation mechanism and mark out areas of responsibility for eachbranchof government (Forestry, Health, etc.). The Constitution prevents tyrannical abuses of authority through the separation of powers, where, each branch of government has its own responsibilities and cannot take action in areas assigned to the other branches.

No member of Congress may serve simultaneously as a member of the executive branch. This separation.differs strikingly.from the Canadian and British practice, in which the prime minister and other executive officials are.also.members of Parliament
comprised from Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved
The complete Articles of Confederation (the true constitution), and the current surreptitious one are in Encarta.

Province of Manitoba

mogul
a rich or powerful person

Monarchy
a form of government in which one person has the hereditary right to rule as head of state during their lifetime; the term is also applied to the state so governed; the power of the monarch varies; today constitutional monarchies possess little, if any power
compare sovereign

James Murray, Governor of Canada
General James Murray, next in command of the British forces, Battle of the Plains of Abrahamsucceeded General Wolfe, killed in the battle of the Plains of Abraham (Plains of Abraham was part of Quebec City overlooking the St. Lawrence River) in 1759, the scene of a decisive victory by British troops over French forces. Here Great Britain captured the French held city of Québec. British General James Wolfe landed his troops and stormed the Plains of Abraham above the city, where they defeated the French defenders led by General Joseph de Montcalm. Wolfe was killed and Montcalm died the next day from wounds he received in the battle.

By grace of the British, the.conquered French were allowed to continue their language and customs.

James Murray was issued.the first constitution for Canada, drafted, signed and printed by Yorke and Yorke Attorneys of the Board of Trade and Plantations (Sessional Papers 18 {British}) in 1763, which appointed him as Governor. The Letters Patent gave the Governor his authority.

The Dominion Government was constituted by.these.Sessional Papers 18,.not by the BNA Act. Sessional Papers 18 can be found in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa. In this document General Murray was appointed Governor of New France. Giving him authority from Britain to be the Corporate Sole were the Letters Patent which have been amended and changed slightly, but basically they remained the same until the last Letters Patent dated March 23, 1931.

Canada could not have two central governments as the Governor General was constituted as the.sole government of Canada. This is recognized by the Governor General's Act, Chapter 85 R.S. (*)

There was only one central government and it was in Ottawa, under the British Governor General over all Canada, in the city where the Governor General resided. So, no other central government was there to 'take over' legally after Britain's Statute of Westminster, December 11, 1931, which set the provinces free of Britain's interest in Canada.

Britain had conquered New France.(now Quebec), where the French were defeated on the Plains of Abraham and decided to impose British institutions, including a colonial assembly.

James Murray and Guy Carleton, both governors in Canada back then, successfully got Britain, by means of the.Quebec Act of 1774, to agree to preserve an administration with no elective (obtained by vote) institutions. This changed with the BNA Act 93 years later.....comprised with Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

mutatis mutandis
the necessary changes having been made; having substituted new terms

myth
a creation myth (such as evolution, thought for a while to be valid, is now regarded as a myth); a fictitious story, person, or thing; fairy tale; a fiction or half truth, especially one that forms part of an ideology; a traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serves as a fundamental type in the world view of a people, as by explaining aspects of the natural world or delineating the psychology, customs, or ideals of society (the myth of Eros and Psyche); such stories considered as a group (the realm of myth).

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