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Interlinked Dictionary©.based on 
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary (m-w.com)
and Star Dictionary
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Dictionary Notes 7
M i s c e l l a n e o u s

-The idiocy of the ego level:
The U.S. government has had a warrant for Bobby Fischer's (the chess champion) arrest since 1992. Fischer has been a fugitive ever since. 

It was 5:25 on a Tuesday afternoon at Tokyo/Narita Airport and Bobby Fischer was at the immigration desk. He was bound for Manila on Japan Airlines Flight 745. His 90-day stay in Japan was up. He was used to moving. For a dozen years, Fischer had been on the move, ever since the U.S. government hit him with a felony charge of violating sanctions against the former Yugoslavia by participating in a $5 million rematch there against Boris Spassky. Fischer was warned beforehand, told he faced up to 10 years in jail. "This is my response" he said, spitting on the warning letter. According to Fischer's lawyer, Richard Vattuone, Fischer is the only American citizen charged with violating those sanctions, including government officials who shipped arms to the Bosnians. (one law for those those they like, another for those they don't; why are they acting like it was not the time of the New Testament?.Exodus 12:49) ...the full article.(type 'finding bobby fisher' in archives, sports, at nydailynews.com)

-Whatever happened to beautiful Iceland which went broke under the antiquated and hurtful money system? (article at globalresearch.ca)
   Credit granted and then control of the country when the compounding interest on money created makes it impossible to ever repay; type John Perkins into Google; he was one of those perpetuating this manner of takeover of a country. Since kicking out the status quo banking system, controlled by a few and not the people of the country and jailing those of that cabal, Iceland is now the jewel of prosperity, treating citizens like no other and having effective control of government in the hands of those governed and each citizen receives an average annual income, which recently was about $36,000. and is increased as needed. It's produced no laziness, but just the opposite, a vibrant, healthful nation of very productive people; the jewel of Europe. It's also the first country in the world to enshrine in its constitution.equality of pay for males and females. 

Gaining control appears to involve creating the problem and moving in with a solution):."In an environment that saw Northern Rock and the Royal Bank of Scotland fail, Iceland's Commerce Ministry wrote to Clive Maxwell at Britain's Treasury on October 5 to assure him that the government would stand behind the TIF in reimbursing Icesave depositors in accordance with EU (European Union) directives. Yet three days later, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling claimed that Iceland was refusing to pay. On this pretense Mr. Brown used emergency anti-terrorist laws enacted in 2001 to freeze Icelandic funds in Britain. He did so despite Iceland's promise to abide by the EU rules. Icelandic authorities were given no voice in how to resolve the matter. Britain and the Netherlands (as they acknowledge in the proposed agreement with which they confronted Icelandic negotiators on June 5, 2009) merely 'informed' Icelandic authorities, without following the rules and consulting with them to get permission for their quick bailout of depositors."....the article.(type 'iceland british treasury' at globalresearch.ca)

History: Not always what you were taught:
Comprised from the article by Garikai Chengu:
Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America
Global Research, October 12, 2014
Article at (type 'before columbus how africans brought civilization to america' globalresearch.ca)

"In schools up and down the country, little children are taught that a heroic Italian explorer discovered America and various events and parades are held to celebrate the occasion.

"It has now become common knowledge amongst academics that Christopher Columbus clearly did not discover America. See Kevin Costner's 4 part series 500 Nations The Story of American Indians on YouTube. 

"African American history did not start with slavery in the New World. An overwhelming body of new evidence is emerging which proves that Africans had frequently sailed across the Atlantic to the Americas, thousands of years before Columbus and indeed before Christ. The great ancient civilizations of Egypt and West Africa traveled to the Americas, contributing immensely to early American civilization by importing the art of pyramid building, political systems and religious practices as well as mathematics, writing and a sophisticated calendar.

"Renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa and the discovery of America, explained how Columbus noted in his journal that Native Americans had confirmed that "black skinned people had come from the southeast in boats, trading in gold-tipped spears".

"One of the first documented instances of Africans sailing and settling in the Americas were black Egyptians led by King Rameses III, during the 19th dynasty in B.C.E. 1292. In fact, in B.C.E. 445, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs' great seafaring and navigational skills. Further concrete evidence, noted by Dr. Imhotep and largely ignored by Euro-centric archaeologists, includes Egyptian artifacts found across North America from the Algonquin writings on the East Coast to the artifacts and Egyptian place names in the Grand Canyon.

"In 1311 A.D., another major wave of African exploration to the New World was led by King Abubakari II, the ruler of the fourteenth century Mali Empire, which was larger than the Holy Roman Empire. The king sent out 200 ships of men and 200 ships of trade material, crops, animals, cloth and crucially African knowledge of astronomy, religion and the arts.

"African explorers crossing the vast Atlantic waters in primitive boats may seem unlikely, or perhaps, far fetched to some. Such incredible nautical achievements are not as daunting as they seem, given that numerous successful modern attempts have illustrated that without an oar, rudder or sail, ancient African boats, including the 'dug-out' would certainly have been able to cross the vast ocean in a matter of weeks.

"As time allows us to drift further and further away from the 'European age of exploration' and we move beyond an age of racial intellectual prejudice, historians are beginning to recognize that Africans were skilled navigators long before Europeans, contrary to popular belief.

"Of course, some Western historians continue to refute this fact because, consciously or unconsciously, they are still hanging on to the 19th-century notion that seafaring was a European monopoly.

"After all, history will tell you that seafaring is the quintessential European achievement. Black Africans braved the Atlantic Ocean and beat Europeans to the New World.

"When most people think about ancient Mexico, the first civilizations that come to mind are the Incas, Aztecs and the Maya. However, during the early 1940's archeologists uncovered a civilization known as the Olmecs of 1200 BC, which predated any other advanced civilization in the Americas.

"The Olmec civilization, which was of African origin and dominated by Africans, was the first significant civilization in Mesoamerica and the Mother Culture of Mexico.

"Olmecs are perhaps best known for the carved colossal heads found in Central Mexico, that exhibit an unmistakably African Negroid appearance. Ancient African historian Professor Van Sertima has illustrated how Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican civilization to use a written language, sophisticated astronomy, arts and mathematics and they built the first cities in Mexico, all of which greatly influenced the Mayans and subsequent civilizations in the Americas. "There is not the slightest doubt that all later civilizations in (Mexico and Central America), rest ultimately on an Olmec base", once remarked Michael Coe, a leading historian on Mexico.

"Africans clearly played an intricate role in the Olmec Empire's rise and that African influence peaked during the same period that ancient Black Egyptian culture ascended in Africa.

"A clear indicator of pre-Columbus African transatlantic travel is the recent archeological findings of narcotics native to America in Ancient Egyptian mummies, which have astounded contemporary historians. German toxicologist, Svetla Balabanova, reported findings of cocaine and nicotine in ancient Egyptian mummies. These substances are known to only be derived from American plants. South American cocaine from Erythroxylon coca and nicotine from Nicotiana tabacum. Such compounds could only have been introduced to Ancient Egyptian culture through trade with Americans.

"Similarities across early American and African religions also indicate significant cross-cultural contact. The Mayans, Aztecs and Incas all worshipped black gods and the surviving portraits of the black deities are revealing. For instance, ancient portraits of the Quetzalcoatl, a messiah serpent god, and Ek-ahua, the god of war, are unquestionably Negro with dark skin and wooly hair. Why would native Americans venerate images so unmistakably African if they had never seen them before? Numerous wall paintings in caves in Juxtlahuaca depict the famous ancient Egyptian 'opening of the mouth' and cross libation rituals. All these religious similarities are too large and occur far too often to be mere coincidences.

"Professor Everett Borders notes another very important indication of African presence, which is the nature of early American pyramids. Pyramid construction is highly specialized. Ancient Egypt progressed from the original stepped pyramid of Djosser, to the more sophisticated finished product at Giza. However, at La Venta in Mexico, the Olmecs made a fully finished pyramid, with no signs of progressive learning. Olmecian and Egyptian pyramids were both placed on the same north-south axis and had strikingly similar construction methods. Tellingly, all of these pyramids also served the same dual purpose, tomb and temple.

"Ancient transatlantic similarities in botany, religion and pyramid building constitute but a fraction of the signs of African influence in ancient America. Other indicators include, astronomy, art, writing systems, flora and fauna.

"Historically, the African people have been exceptional explorers and purveyors of culture across the world. Throughout all of these travels, African explorers have not had a history of starting devastating wars on the people they met. The greatest threat towards Africa having a glorious future is her people's ignorance of Africa's glorious past.

"Pre-Columbus civilization in the Americas had its foundation built by Africans and developed by the ingenuity of Native Americans. Sadly, America, in post-Columbus times, was founded on the genocide of the indigenous Americans, built on the backs of African slaves and continues to run on the exploitation of workers at home and abroad.

"Clearly, Africans helped civilize America well before Europeans 'discovered' America and well before Europeans claim to have civilized Africa. The growing body of evidence is now becoming simply too loud to ignore. It's about time education policy makers reexamine their school curriculums to adjust for America's long pre-Columbus history."....Garikai Chengu is a scholar at Harvard University.

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