Abraham and instructing him to leave the
area he was born in, God.(which
him to the land of Canaan,
now modern Israel. His descendants comprised the
12 tribes of Israel.
They migrated to Egypt and were
in bondage, returning 430 years later to settle Canaan.(map),
the land promised to their forefathers:.Deuteronomy
grew hostile toward the family
of Jacob came the Israelites;
was changed to Israel).as
their size continued to increase:.Genesis
did they go?
14 account of Abraham defeating a coalition
of kings from the east fit so well with the geopolitical conditions of
that and only that era.
that time, the region of Mesopotamia was closely governed by the
of Ur and after that
time, the empires of Babylon
and Assyria controlled the
Only during the first half
of the second millennium could kings of small city states have roamed the
countryside, as did die potentates Abraham encountered, looking to expand
Abraham and later Isaac,
made a treaty with King Abimelech and Jacob made a treaty with Laban.."I
have over 90 documents of ancient treaties and covenants.(agreements).to
compare from B.C.E. 2600
down to B.C.E. 600"....Kenneth
Kitchen, University of Liverpool, England told.Christianity
Today Magazine (christianitytoday.com)."and
so there's no room for mistake here.".The
treaties, Kitchen explains, take distinctive
forms over the centuries, with oaths and curses and stipulations
being presented in different orders and being given different emphasis.
The ones with Abimelech and Laban fit precisely the structure of treaties
from the middle of the second millennium,
but neither later nor earlier ones.
The names Yitzchak.(Isaac),
begin with something linguists call the 'Amorite imperfective'. From studying
lists of thousands of names found from the third millennium and later,
Kitchen shows that 55 percent of the names during the time of the Patriarchs
begin with an i / y sound, but already.'by
1500 the whole thing drops to a tiny percentage and never ceases dropping
Kitchen asks, did fiction writers of the middle of B.C.E. the first millennium
get these names if they were composing their biblical novellas.(a
thousand or more years after the names had fallen from popular use?
Kitchen asks the same question
about Genesis 37:28, which states that Joseph was sold by his brothers
to slave traders for 20 silver shekels while on their way to Egypt. Tracking
the price of slaves sold from B.C.E. 2400 to B.C.E. 400 and using extrabiblical
sources, he finds that this amount matches exactly the going price in B.C.E.
the eighteenth century. Steady inflation had driven it up to 30 shekels
by the thirteenth century, which corresponds to Exodus 21:32; 50 shekels
in the eighth century, which corresponds to 2Kings 15:20 and to nearly
100 shekels soon after the exile from Egypt in the sixth century.
It is worth noting that the
practice of using forced labor for building projects is only documented
for the period B.C.E. 1450 to 1200, the time most biblical historians place
the Israelites in Egypt. The realization that there were others enslaved
along with the Hebrews may explain who the 'mixed multitude' of Exodus
12:38 are who joined the freedom train..(for
more on the Israelites coming out of Egypt see the article 'Did The Exodus
Never Happen', in September 7, 1998, Christianity Today Magazine)
David and Solomon reigns spanned from about B.C.E.
1000 to B.C.E. 920.
In 1993, excavations at the
ancient city of Dan.(named
of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel).unearthed
a stone slab dating to 841 B.C. It contained the first ancient extrabiblical
reference to the 'House Of David'.(a
phrase used more than 20 times in the Old Testament).
Discovered in two pieces the Tel Dan Stele stone slab is helping to muffle
those who say King David was a myth.
In addition, an ancient receipt.(in
donated to the 'Temple of Yawweh' and King
Solomon's pillars, gives us the oldest known reference outside the
Bible to King
Solomon's temple. And, a seal with Solomon's name on it could very
well date to the 10th century B.C. when Solomon still lived. ...Journal
for the Study of the Old Testament.
a seven foot high stone slab, Pharaoh.(one
of the kings of Egypt).Merneptah.(son
of Rameses II, B.C.E.
is laid waste and his seed is not." This was the first extrabiblical mention