ancient remains of a Phoenician settlement are found at the site of Nora,
on the island of Sardinia, Italy. The earliest Phoenician remains date
from B.C.E. 7th century..Microsoft®
Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 All rights reserved.
Phoenician was the New
Testament Greek name for the Old Testament name of Sidonian.
They were great craftsmen:.1Kings
5:6 "Now therefore give command that they hew me cedar trees out of
Lebanon and my servants shall be with your servants and unto you will I
give hire for your servants according to all that you shall appoint, for
you know that there is none among us that can skill to hew timber like
unto the Sidonians."
Phoenicians called themselves
in their own language 'Kenaani'.(Akkadian,
In Hebrew the word 'kenaani' has the secondary meaning of 'merchant', which
the Phoenicians were good at. Phoenicians probably arrived on the world
scene about B.C.E. 3000. Nothing is known where they came from, but we
do know some
were giants. Phoenicia is a Greek term
applied to the coast of Lebanon.(map).....comprised
with information from Encyclopedia Britannica.
"Phoenicia, ancient designation
of a narrow strip of territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean
Sea, now largely in modern Lebanon. The territory, about 200 miles.(320
and from 5 to 15 miles.(8
to 25 km).wide,
was bounded on the east by the Lebanon Mountains. The southern boundary
was Mount Carmel; the northern boundary was generally accepted to be the
Eleutherus River, now called the Kabîr, which forms the northern
boundary of Lebanon.
"Phoenicia was not a unified
state but a group of city-kingdoms, one of which usually dominated the
others. The most important of these cities were Simyra, Zarephath.(Sarafand),
Byblos, Jubeil, Arwad.(Rouad),
Gebal north of Beirut, Arvad or Arados and Zemar. The two most dominant
were Tyre and Sidon, which alternated as sites of the ruling power.
"The Phoenicians, called
in the Old Testament and Phoenicians by the Greek poet Homer, were Semites,
related to the Canaanites
of ancient Palestine.
Historical research indicates that they founded their first settlements
on the Mediterranean coast about B.C.E. 2500.(later
moving inland to what is called Venice, Italy, where their cunning
descendants, now thirteeen families, were able to manipulate themselves
into controlling the world. And so it is to this day. See the Phonenician
families listed in the documentary.Timeline...).
Early in their history, they developed under the influence of the Sumerian
cultures of nearby Babylon.
About B.C.E. 1800, Egypt, which was then beginning to acquire an empire
in the Middle East, invaded and took control of Phoenicia, holding it until
about B.C.E. 1400. The raids of the Hittites
against Egyptian territory gave the Phoenician cities an opportunity to
revolt and by B.C.E. 1100 they were independent of Egypt.
fell during the late 7th century B.C.E., Phoenicia, except for Tyre, which
succeeded in maintaining its independence until about B.C.E. 538, was incorporated
into the Chaldean
Empire of Nebuchadnezzar II
and in B.C.E. 539, became part of the Persian Empire. Under Persian rule
Sidon became the leading city of Phoenicia.
"When Alexander the Great
of Macedonia invaded Asia and defeated Persia in B.C.E. 333, Sidon, Arwad
and Byblos capitulated
to Macedonia. Tyre again refused to submit and it took Alexander a 7-month
siege in B.C.E. 332 to capture the city. After this defeat the Phoenicians
gradually lost their separate identity as they were absorbed into the Greco-Macedonian
empire. The cities became Hellenized
and in B.C.E. 64, even the name of Phoenicia disappeared, when the territory
was made part of the Roman province of Syria..Microsoft®
Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 All rights reserved.
Phenice was a territory
of the province of Syria,
situated on the coast of the Mediterranean between the river Eleutherus
and the promontory
of Carmel, some 30 miles.(50
Bible and the Monuments.as
the Egyptian inscriptions Phoenicia is called Keft, the inhabitants being
Kefa and since Keft-ur or 'greater Phoenicia' was the name given to the
of the Nile from the Phoenician colonies settled upon it, the Philistines
who came from Caphtor or Keft-ur
must have been of Phoenician origin. Trade routes from all Asia
on the Phoenician coast; the centres of commerce on the Euphrates
and Tigris rivers, forwarding their goods by way of Tyre
to the Nile, to Arabia and to the west and on the other hand, the productions
of the vast regions bordering the Mediterranean passing through the Canaanite
capital to the eastern world."
Phoenicia lay in the very
centre of the old world and was the natural entrepot.(market
commerce with foreign nations. It was the 'England of antiquity'.
Phenice was situated
at the entry of the sea, a merchant port city of the people for many isles:.Ezekiel
27:3,4. Phoenicians were renowned
in ancient times
for the manufacture
of glass and some of the specimens
of this work that have been preserved
are still the wonder of mankind.
The far reaching commercial
activity of the Phoenicians, especially with.Tarshish.(a
Phoenician colony in the south of Spain; different than Tarsus,
a city in Turkey).and
the western world, enriched them with vast wealth, which introduced boundless
luxury and developed among them a great activity in all manner of arts
New Testament Notes:."Phoenicia
always depended for its cereal supplies on the harvests of Palestine.(Acts
it is evident that the famine was afflicting the Phoenicians at this time
no less than the Israelites."
In the matter of shipping,
whether ship building be thought of or traffic upon the sea, the Phoenicians
all other nations.
The Phoenicians were the
merchants of the old world, establishing colonies at various places, of
was the chief.
They were a Canaanite
branch of the race
and are frequently called.Sidonians.or.Zidonians.(natives
or inhabitants of Sidon),
from their principal city of Sidon/Zidon.
to hew timber like
unto the Sidonians":.1Kings
5:6. Zidonians often includes all the Phoenicians,
as well as the inhabitants of Zidon, the metropolis
of Phoenicia. The city of Zidon/Sidon is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants.
Phoenicians have been regarded
as the inventors of alphabetic
the Phoenician alphabet was comprised
letters. The 24 letters in the Phoenician alphabet in
turn, make up today's Greek alphabet as they also did ancient Greek.
discovery of inscriptions
in Yemen and Hadramaut, Southern Arabia,
known as Hemyaritic, have led to the conclusion that the Phoenician alphabet
from the even older in history,.Maonites:.Judges
10:10-12; 2Chronicles 26:7.
So, by this, the Phoenician alphabet ceases to be the mother alphabet.
The scholar Sayce thinks."it
is more than possible that the Egyptians themselves were emigrants
from Southern Arabia".
expressed their thoughts by certain symbols,
system of writing, such as that of ancient Egypt, in which pictorial
symbols are used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning
carvings styled because they were almost exclusively used on sacred subjects.