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Scripture Notes Old Testament
page 4
-Unicorn:
Barnes Notes: The idea here is, that he cried to God when exposed to what is here called "the horns of the unicorns":.Psalms 22:21 "Save me from the lion's mouth, for you have heard me from the horns of the unicorns.".That is, when surrounded by enemies as fierce and violent as wild beasts, as if he were among 'unicorns' seeking his life. Here he called upon God and God had heard him. This would refer to some former period of his life, when surrounded by dangers or exposed to the attacks of wicked men and when he had called upon God and had been heard.

Picture information:.The Lady and the Unicorn,.circa 1515, from The Hunt of the Unicorn, is one of a series of Franco-Flemish tapestries. Woven of silk and wool with silver threads, they are remarkable for their profusion of realistic detail. The top of the tent reads "To my only desire". From Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library. Unicorns are depicted in a cave in Lascaux, France. The number of figures represented in cave paintings ranges from a few in some caves to several hundred in caves such as Lascaux or Les Trois Frères, also in France.....Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

There were not a few occasions alike in the life of David and in the life of the Saviour, to which this would be applicable. The fact that he had thus been delivered from danger, is now urged as an argument why the Creator was to be regarded as able to deliver him again and why the prayer might be offered that he would do it:.Psalms 22:9-11.
   The existence of such an animal was long regarded as astonishing and barely.credible. However, it has been proved that there is such an animal, as explained below. The word unicorn occurs elsewhere:.Numbers 23:22; 24:8; Deuteronomy 33:17; Psalms 22:21; 29:6; 92:10; Isaiah 34:7

There was some special majesty or dignity in the horns of this animal that attracted attention and that made them the proper symbol of dominion and of royal authority as Psalms 92:10 shows.

Evidences of the unicorn's existence have been confirmed. These evidences are adduced by Rosenmuller, Morgenland, ii. p. 269, following and by Prof. Robinson, Calmet, pp. 908,909. They are, summarily, the following: 

      (1) Pliny.(Roman writer and encyclopedist, who was the foremost authority on science in ancient Europe; wrote Historia Naturalis.encyclopedia of nature and art in 37 books).mentions such an animal {8,21} and gives a description of it, though from his time for centuries it seems to have been unknown. His language is, 'Asperrimam autem feram monocerotem reliquo corpore equo similem, capite cervo, pedibus elephanti, cauda apro, mugitu gravi, uno cornu nigro media fronte cubitorum duum eminente. IIanc feram vivam negant capi', meaning "The unicorn is an exceeding fierce animal, resembling a horse as to the rest of his body, but having the head like a stag.(adult deer), the feet like an elephant and the tail like a wild boar.(a wild pig). Its roaring is loud and it has a black horn of about two cubits projecting from the middle of the forehead."

      (2) The figure of the unicorn, in various attitudes, according to Niebuhr, is depicted on almost all the staircases in the ruins of Persepolis.(an ancient city of Persianortheast of modern Shiraz in southwest Iran).....Reisebeschreib. ii. S. 127.

In 1530, Ludovice de Bartema, a Roman patrician, visited Mecca under the assumed character of a Mussulman.(a Moslem).and among other curiosities that he mentions, he says "On the other side of the Kaaba.(An English linear measure equal to 45 inches {114 centimeters} a Moslem shrine in Mecca toward which the faithful turn to pray).is a walled court in which we saw two unicorns that were pointed out to us as a rarity and they are indeed truly remarkable. The larger of the two is built like a three-year-old colt and has a horn upon the forehead about three ells.(an English linear measure equal to 45 inches {114 centimeters}).long. This animal has the color of a yellowish-brown horse, a head like a stag.(adult deer), a neck not very long with a thin mane; the legs are small and slender like those of a hind or roe.(small deer, 28" at shoulder); the forefoot hoofs are divided and resemble the hoofs of a goat." ...Rosenmuller. Alte u. neue Morgenland, No. 377. Thessalonians ii. S. 271, 272. 

      (4) Don Juan Gabriel, a Portuguese colonel, who lived several years in Abyssinia.(ancient Ethiopia), assures us that in the region of Agamos, in the Abyssinian province of Darners, he had seen an animal of the form and size of a middle-sized horse, of a dark, chestnut-brown color and with a whitish horn about five spans.(9 inches {23 centimeters}).long upon its forehead. The mane and tail were black and the legs long and slender. Several other Portuguese, who were placed in confinement upon a high mountain in the district Namna, by the Abyssinian king Saghedo, related that they had seen at the mountain several unicorns feeding. These accounts are confirmed by Lobe, who lived for a long time as a missionary in Abyssinia.

      (5) Dr. Sparrman the Swedish naturalist, who visited the Cape of Good Hope and the adjacent regions in 1772-1776, gives, in his Travels, the following account."Jacob Kock an observing peasant on Hippopotamus river, who had traveled over a considerable part of Southern Africa, found on the face of a perpendicular rock, a drawing made by the Hotttentots.(pastoral {shepherds or herders} people of Namibia and South Africa).of an animal with a single horn. The Hottentots told him that the animal there represented was very like the horse on which he rode, but had a straight horn upon the forehead. They added, that these one-horned animals were rare, that they ran with great rapidity and that they were very fierce."

      (6) A similar animal is described as having been killed by a party of Hottentots in pursuit of the savage Bushmen in 1791.."The animal resembled a horse, was of a light grey color and with white stripes under the jaw. It had a single horn directly in front, as long as one's arm and at the base about as thick. Toward the middle the horn was somewhat flattened but had a sharp point. It was not attached to the bone of the forehead, but was fixed only in the skin. The head was like that of the horse and the size about the same." ...Rosenmuller, Alte u. nerve Morgenland, vol. ii. p. 269ff, ed. Leipz. 1818. 

      (7) To these proofs one other is added by Prof. Robinson. It is copied from the Quarterly Review for Oct. 1820, vol. xxiv. p. 120, in a notice of Frazer's Tour through the Himalaya mountains. The information is contained in a letter from Major Latter, commanding in the rajah of Sikkim's territories, in the hilly country east of Nepal. This letter states that."the unicorn animal, so long considered as an astonishment, actually exists in the interior of Tibet, where it is well known to the inhabitants. In a Tibetan manuscript says Major Latter, containing the names of different animals, which I procured the other day from the hills, the unicorn is classed under the head of those whose hoofs are divided. It is called the one-horned tso'po.

"Upon inquiring what kind of an animal it was, to our astonishment, the person who brought the manuscript described exactly the unicorn of the ancients, saying that it was a native of the interior of Tibet, about the size of a tattoo.(a horse from twelve to thirteen hands {a hand was 4 inches or 10.2 centimeters} high), fierce and extremely wild and seldom if ever caught alive, but frequently shot and that the flesh was used for food. They go together in herds, like wild buffalo and are frequently to be met with on the borders of the great desert, in that part of the country inhabited by wandering Tartars."

      (8) To these proofs I add another, taken from the Narrative of the Rev. John Campbell, who thus speaks of it, in his Travels in South Africa, vol. ii. p. 294.."While in the Mashow territory, the Hottentots brought in a head different from any rhinoceros that had been previously killed. The common African rhinoceros has a crooked horn resembling a cock's.(an adult male chicken, called a rooster).spur, which rises about nine or ten inches above the nose and inclines backward. Immediately behind this is a short thick horn. But the head they brought us had a straight horn projecting three feet from the forehead, about ten inches above the tip of the nose. The projection of this great horn very much resembles that of the fanciful unicorn in the British arms. It has a small, thick, horny substance, eight inches long, immediately behind it and which can hardly be observed on the animal at the distance of 100 yards and seems to be designed for keeping fast that which is penetrated by the long horn. The head resembled in size a nine-gallon cask and measured three feet from the mouth to the ear. From its weight and the position of the horn, it appears capable of overcoming any creature hitherto known."

A fragment of the skull, with the horn, is deposited in the Museum of the London Missionary Society. These testimonies from so many witnesses from different parts of the world, who write without concert and yet who concur so almost entirely in the account of the size and figure of the animal, leave little room to doubt its real existence. That it is not better known and that its existence has been doubted, is not wonderful. It is to be remembered that all accounts agree in the representation that it is an animal whose residence is in deserts or mountains and that large parts of Africa and Asia are still unexplored.

We are to remember also, that the giraffe has been discovered only some few years ago and that the same is true of the gnu.(wildebeest), which until recently was held to be a fable of the ancients. At the same time, however, that the existence of such an animal as that of the unicorn is in the highest degree probable.

Some have thought that the animal referred to was a rhinoceros.
The unicorn was obviously an animal well known to the Hebrews, being everywhere mentioned with other animals common to the country, while the rhinoceros was never an inhabitant of the country, is nowhere else spoken of by the sacred writers, nor, according to Bochart, either by Aristotle in his treatise of animals, nor by Arabian writers. It does not seem therefore to admit of reasonable doubt that the rhinoceros is referred to in the passage before us.

Notes on Ezekiel 14:9:
Barnes Notes:."A deep truth lies beneath these words, namely, that evil as well as good is under Godís direction. He turns it as He will, employing it to test the sincerity of men and thus making it ultimately contribute to the purification of His people, to the confirmation of the righteous, to the increase of their glory and felicity. The case of the false prophets who deceived Ahab.(1Kings 22:20-22).is a striking representation of this principle. The Lord sends forth an evil spirit to persuade Ahab to his ruin. Toward the close of the kingdom of Judah false prophets were especially rife. The thoughts of men's hearts were revealed, the good separated from the bad and the remnant of the people purged from the sins by which of late years the whole nation had been defiled."

Adam Clarke's Commentary:."That is, he ran before he was sent; he willingly became the servant of Satan's illusions and I suffered this to take place, because he and his followers refused to consult and serve me. It is common in the Hebrew language to state a thing as done by the Lord which he only suffers or permits to be done, for so absolute and universal is the government of God, that the smallest occurrence cannot take place without his will or permission."

Eclectic Notes:."As we learned in the previous prophetic message that such deceiving prophets were in abundance among Israel. They were the curse of the nation. Little did they care about the spiritual condition of the people. They prophesied for filthy lucre's.(money).sake and lived in sin like the rest of the apostates. To them people came to inquire of the Lord and the deceiving prophets prophesied smooth things.(Isaiah 30:9,10). But the Lord Himself as a judgment had deceived their prophets to ripen the people for the deserved doom. It is the same what Micaiah declared in the presence of King Jehoshaphat and King Ahab. The four hundred prophets of Ahab were possessed by a lying spirit."

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary:."No outward form or reformation can be acceptable to God as long as any idol possesses the heart, yet how many prefer their own devices and their own righteousness, to the way of salvation. Men's corruptions are idols in their hearts and are of their own setting up. God will let them take their course.".Hosea 4:17 "Ephraim is joined to idols; let him alone."

Matthew Poole's Commentary:."The prophet who makes this his trade and gain, the false prophet, who speaks all serene and quiet, in hope of reward for his kind answer to those that desired to hear what might please them more than what God commanded, promised or threatened."

Times don't change people, yet people do change. The circumstances they are in bring forth attitudes today as they did in ancient times. The same consciousness causes the same issues.(*), the consciousness that is easily pumped by the beings of the dark side. But, one can decide against the negatives:.Ephesians 6:12 "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." Isaiah 10:1,2 "Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees and that write grievousness which they have prescribed to turn aside the needy from judgment and to take away the right from the poor of my people, that widows may be their prey and that they may rob the fatherless!" Job 13:4 "But you are forgers of lies...".Matthew 23:13-33.

Once men and women today change the consciousness of the world.(how?), the history of negatives causing hurts in so many ways will be all be a thing of the past.

In the time of Moses, look what happened dealing with the leaders of ancient Egypt.

The Egyptians back then thought as some have today, considering themselves as being above others who they cared not to get to know and instead thinking that others not of their ilk are below them as humans; so, oppressive ways were implemented, ways such as depopulating them were designed in order to 'keep them as a group in line':.Exodus 1:8-10. Yet Egypt is predicted to be one of the top spiritual nations, along with those of Assyria and those called Israelites once peace reigns on the Earth:.Isaiah 19:20-25.

There were many Pharaohs over Egypt back then.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary:."Of the kings of Egypt, there are not less than twelve or thirteen mentioned in Scripture, all of whom bore the general title of Pharaoh, except four. Along with this title, two of them have also other proper names, Necho and Hophra. The following is their order. Some of them have been identified, by the labors of Champollion and others, with kings whose proper names we know from other sources, while others still remain in obscurity. Indeed, so brief, obscure and conflicting are the details of Egyptian history and ancient chronology, which no name before that of Shishak can be regarded as identified beyond dispute."

"1. Pharaoh, Genesis 12:14,15, in the time of Abraham, B.C. or B.C.E. 1920. This pharaoh, whose name is not known, was of the Theban Dynasty of kings B.C.E. 2755-2255. "Thebes, the ancient capital of Egypt, was the site of the Luxor Temple, shown here. It was also the site of the tombs for the pharaohs, known as the Valley of the Kings. The contemporary city of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile River, occupies part of the site of ancient Thebes."....Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

"2. Pharaoh Amenemhet III This granite statue of Amenemhet III is in a collection at the British Museum in London. Amenemhet III ruled as king of Egypt from B.C.E 1842 to 1797, during Egypt's 12th Dynasty. He built a system of irrigation that increased mineral production and agriculture."....Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
 
 
 


"3. Pharaoh, the master of Joseph, Genesis 37:36; Acts 7:10,13
B.C.E 1728. Under this Pharaoh who was kind to Joseph and his family, Joseph saves all Egypt from famine:.Genesis 47:1-29. Pharaoh gives Joseph a woman named Asenath from whom came sons named Ephraim and Manasseh:.Genesis 41:45."

"4. Pharaoh, who knew not Joseph and under whom Moses was born, B.C. / B.C.E. 1571, Exodus 1:8. Very probably there was another Pharaoh reigning at the time when Moses fled into Midian and who died before Moses who, at the age of eighty returned from Midian into Egypt:.Exodus 2:11-23; 4:19; Acts 7:23."

"5. Pharaoh of the.exodus from Egypt, under whom the Israelites left Egypt and who perished in the Red Sea, B.C.E 1491:.Exodus 5:3-23.".

Some records show the date of the exodus from Egypt by Moses and the Israelites to be correctly calculated at B.C.E. 1440. This from.1Kings 6:1 when concurring that the exodus occurred 480 years before king Solomon began building the Temple in Jerusalem in the fourth year of his reign, which was B.C.E. 960, so the exodus long before this would date to be B.C.E. 1440.

Comprised with.Easton's Bible Dictionary: The Pharaoh leading to and into the Exodus appears to be Menephtah I.

Seti II, the son of Menephtah I, also known as Ramses II, appears to have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The.Harris papyrus.found at Medinet-abou in Upper Egypt in 1856 A.D., a state document written by Rameses III, the second king of the Twentieth Dynasty, gives at length an account of a great exodus from Egypt, followed by wide-spread confusion and anarchy. This, there is great reason to believe was the Hebrew exodus with which the Nineteenth Dynasty of the Pharaohs came to an end.

"6. Pharaoh Amenophis III, also called Amenhotep III, king of Egypt circa.B.C.E 1411-1375, who sponsored the building of many monuments. Amenhotep's diplomatic correspondence is preserved in the Amarna Letters, a collection of some 400 clay tablets found in Tall al 'Amârinah in 1887.

"7. Pharaoh, in the time of David, B.C.E. 1030:.1Kings 11:18-22

"8. Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, B.C.E. 1010:.1Kings 3:1; 7:8; 9:16,24

"9. Shishak, the pharaoh near the end of Solomon's reign contemporary with Rehoboam, Solomon's son, who reigned, B.C.E 975:.1Kings 11:40; 14:25.

"10. Zerah.(called Osorchon or Osorkon II by historians). His name means sunrise. He was king of Egypt and Ethiopia in the time of Asa having succeeded Shishak.(just above).and apparently was Ethiopian, B.C.E. 930. With an enormous army, the largest we read of in Scripture, he invaded the kingdom of Judah.(map).in the days of Asa:.2Chronicles 14:9-15. He reached Zephathah and there encountered the army of Asa. This is the only instance "in all the annals of Judah of a victorious encounter in the field with a first-class full force power". The Egyptian host was utterly routed and the Hebrews gathered "exceeding much spoil". Three hundred years elapsed before another Egyptian army, that of Necho in B.C.E. 609, came up against Jerusalem.

11. 'So', also called 'Sevechus' and also called 'Sabaco II', contemporary with Ahaz, B.C.E. 730, 'So' was an Ethiopian who became Pharaoh of Egypt and who accepted a bribe by Hoshea to help him against the Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser:.2Kings 17:4. The seal of Pharaoh So is well known to students of Egyptian antiquities.".In the hieroglyphics, he was the 25th of Manetho, Shebek I, B.C.E. 725.

"12. Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia and Pharaoh of Egypt, in the time of Hezekiah.(2Chronicles 29:1,2), B.C.E. 720:.2Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9. He is undoubtedly the Tarcus of Manetho and the Tearcho of Strabo, the third and last king of the twenty-fifth or Ethiopian dynasty. He was a powerful monarch, ruling both Upper and lower Egypt and extending his conquests far into Asia and towards the 'pillars of Hercules' in the west. His name and victories are recorded on an ancient temple at Medinet Abou, in upper Egypt.

"13. Pharaoh Necho, also spelt Necoh and Neco, in the time of Josiah, circa.B.C.E. 612:.2Kings 23:29,30.

"14. Pharaoh Hophra, contemporary with Nebuchadnezzar-II. He was the grandson of Necho and is the Apries of Herodotus. Zedekiahformed an alliance with Pharaoh Hopra against Nebuchadnezzar, and he drove the Assyrians from Palestine, took Zidon and Tyre and returned to Egypt with great spoil. He seems to have done nothing to prevent the subsequent destruction of Jerusalem. He reigned twenty-five years and was dethroned by his army after an unsuccessful expedition against Cyrene, as was foretold:.Jeremiah 44:30."

-Ptolemy I.(called Ptolemy Soter {Soter means 'the preserver'}), king of Egypt, B.C.E. 367-283: He was king in the time of Alexander the Great, rising to king in B.C.E. 305. He founded the renown Alexandrian Library, which today holds the greatest collection of books from the ancient world. It held over 500,000 scrolls, had copying facilites preserving thousand of texts, which would have otherwise been lost by fires set by enemies and has a museum. It's located in Alexandria, Egypt.

Ptolemy means the Egyptian dynasty of Macedonian kings, of which there were many kings from B.C.E. 323-30.

What was supporting Egypt? The chief agricultural productions of Egypt are wheat, durrah or small maize, Turkish or Indian corn or maize, rice, barley, beans, cucumbers, watermelons, leeks and onions; also flax and cotton. The date tree and vine are frequent. The papyrus is still found in small quantity, chiefly near Damietta. It is a reed about nine feet high, as thick as a man's thumb, with a tuft of down on the top. The animals of Egypt, besides the usual kinds of tame cattle, are the wild ox or buffalo in great numbers, the ass and camel, dogs in multitudes without masters, the mongoose, the crocodile and the hippopotamus:.Numbers 11:5 "We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers and the melons and the leeks and the onions and the garlic."

Egypt was conquered by Cambyses, the older son of Cyrus, king of Persia and became a province of the Persian empire about B.C.E. 525. Thus it continued until conquered by Alexander, B.C.E. 350, after whose death it formed, along with Syria, Palestine, Lybia, etc., the kingdom of the Ptolemies.

Concise Dictionary:."The Egyptians were also a religious people and though their religion was, alas, idolatry, yet it was an idolatry far more seemly and moral than that practiced by the 'cultured' Greeks and Romans. It was earlier and hence nearer a source of knowledge of God. In theory they speak of one god 'the only living in substance' and 'the only eternal substance' and though they speak of two 'father and son' as some interpret, yet it did not destroy the unity of their god 'the one in one'. From this they treated each of his attributes as separate gods and they had also gods distinct from these. Then they had a number of sacred animals, from the cat to the crocodile, which were said to be symbols of their gods. The bull Apis represented the god Osiris; it was selected with great care and strictly guarded. It is supposed that it was the remembrance of this Apis that caused the Israelites to choose the form of a calf for their golden idol and we learn from Ezekiel 20:6-8 that Israel had fallen into idolatry when in Egypt. Their mode of writing or rather drawing, their language was by hieroglyphics. Most of the figures represented animals, birds, the human figure or familiar things, which first represented the objects drawn, to which also ideas and sounds were attached."

-Ptolemy II.(called Ptolemy Philadelphus {Philadelphus means 'brotherly'}), B.C.E. 309-246, king of Egypt, son of Ptolemy I. In power B.C.E. 285-246. Responsible for a version of the Bible.

-Ptolemy III.(called Ptolemy Euergetes {benefactor}), B.C.E. 282-221, king of Egypt B.C.E. 246-221. He was son of Ptolemy II. Under his rule the height of Egyptian prosperity and wealth under the Ptolemies reached its apex. Please see an Encyclopedia for the other Ptolemies.

For much more on the pharaohs, please see.Manning's Land of the Pharaohs.

Proof pictures of the Exodus.(and here's a more detailed PowerPoint presentation of it):





Coral does not grow on gold, hence the shape has remained distinct. The wood inside the gold veneer has disintegrated making the wheels too fragile to move. Also on the Arabian side of the crossing were found remains including the golden calf.(Exodus 32:1-8), pillars and altars. Also were found chariot bodies, human and horse bones at both the entry point and on the exit side, the Saudi coastline.






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