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Interlinked Dictionary© based on 
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary (m-w.com)
and Star Dictionary
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cache.noun
the store of goods or valuables concealed in a hiding place; a hiding place used especially for storing provisions; a place for concealment and safekeeping, as of valuables; a fast storage buffer in the central processing unit of a computer
cache, cached, caching, caches.transitive verbs
to hide or store in a cache

caliper.noun.and.verb,.plural.calipers 
an instrument consisting essentially of two curved hinged legs, used to measure thickness and distances

callous.adjective
being hardened and thickened; having calluses; feeling no emotion; feeling no sympathy for others
callously.adverb
callousness.noun

calumniate.transitive verb
calumniated, calumniating.intransitive verbs
to slander; to spread false and harmful statements about 
calumniation, calumniator.nouns
caluminious.adjective
full of calumnies; slanderous
calumny, calumnies.plural.nouns
a false and malicious statement meant to hurt someone's reputation; the uttering of such a statement; slander

calyx.noun,.plural.calyxes or calyces
the sepals of a flower considered as a group; a cuplike structure or organ, such as one of the cuplike divisions of the pelvis or of the kidney; a collecting structure in the kidney

convene, convened, convening, convenes.verbs
intransitive verb use.to come together usually for an official or public purpose; assemble formally
transitive verb use.to cause to come together formally; convoke.(convene a special session of Congress); call; to summon to appear
convenable.adjective
convener or convenor.noun

convenient.adjective
suited or favorable to one's comfort, purpose or needs (a convenient time to receive guests; a convenient excuse for not going); easy to reach; accessible (a small store around the corner); close at hand; near (an apartment that is convenient to shopping and transportation); fitting and proper; suitable (it's just convenient to go and visit them at this time)
conveniently.adverb
convenience.noun,.plural.conveniences
the quality of being suitable to one's comfort, purposes or needs (it's a convenience to live near shops, schools and libraries); personal comfort or advantage (services that promote the customer's convenience); something that increases comfort or saves work (household conveniences such as a washing machine, an electric can opener and disposable diapers)

camaraderie.noun
a spirit (attitude) of friendly good fellowship; a spirit of familiarity and trust existing between friends

Cambrian Era.noun
a geological period 570-600 million years ago in the Paleozoic Era, believed by evolutionists to be marked by the appearance of the first simple marine animal and plant life, but an era which poses puzzling questions; see the Geologic Time Scale

camouflage.noun
to disguise; to change the appearance of, in order to conceal
camouflage, camouflaged, camouflaging, camouflages.verbs
transitive verb use.to conceal by the use of disguise or by protective coloring or garments that blend in with the surrounding environment; to conceal, usually through misrepresentation or other artifice (camouflaged their true intentions with professions of friendship)
intransitive verb use.to use protective coloring or garments for concealment
camouflager.noun,.plural.camouflagers

Canaan.noun
the name signifies 'the lowlands', as distinguished from the land of Gilead on the east of Jordan, which was a mountainous district; Canaanites came from the son of Ham whose name was Canaan (1Chronicles 1:8); the extent and boundaries of Canaan (map) are fully set forth in different parts of Scripture:.Genesis 10:19; 17:8; Numbers 13:29. Canaan today is modern physical Israel; people from that ancient region were called Canaanites and some of them were giants

cannon.noun,.plural.cannon.or.cannons
a large, mounted.weapon.such as.various.forms of guns that fire heavy projectiles;  the loop at the top of a bell by which it is hung; a round bit for a horse
cannon, cannoned, cannoning, cannons.verbs
transitive verb use.to bombard with cannon; to cause to carom in billiards
intransitive verb use.to fire cannon

canon.noun,.plural.canons
the authentic works of a writer; an authoritative list of books accepted as Holy.Scripture, such as the.Holy Bible; a regulation or dogma.decreed by a church council; a sanctioned or accepted group or body of related works (the canon of great literature); an accepted principle or rule; a criterion or standard of judgment; a body of principles, rules, standards or norms
synonym.law
canonize, canonized, canonizing, canonizes.transitive verbs
to include in the biblical canon; to declare a deceased person to be a saint and entitled to be fully honored as such
canonization, canonizer.nouns
canonical.also.canonic.adjective
of, relating.to or required by canon law; of or appearing in the biblical canon; conforming to orthodox rules, as of procedure
canonically.adverb
canonicity.noun

caprice.noun
someone who is capricious often changes their mind unexpectedly; a caprice is an unexpected action or decision which has no strong reason or purpose (an accident is a capricious happening); a sudden and unreasonable change of mind, behaviour or circumstances; an impulsive change of mind; an inclination to change one's mind impulsively; a sudden, unpredictable action, change or series of actions or changes (a hailstorm in July is a caprice of nature)
synonyms.whim, whimsy, erratic, vagary, freak
capricious.adjective
accidental, as caprice; governed or characterized by sudden, impulsive and seemingly unmotivated ideas or actions; impulsive, unpredictable; arbitrary
capriciousness.noun
capriciously.adverb
synonym-inconstant

capsid.noun,.plural.capsids
the protein shell that surrounds a virus-particle

carbohydrate.noun,.plural.carbohydrates
any of certain.organic.compounds.composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, including the sugars, starches and celluloses

conciliate, conciliated, conciliating, conciliates.transitive verbs
to overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease; to regain or try to regain friendship or goodwill by pleasant behavior; to make or attempt to make compatible; if you conciliate someone, you try to end a disagreement with them (we all have a duty to conciliate and not to provoke, especially those in authority:.Matthew 5:25 "Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are in the way with him, lest at any time the adversary deliver you to the judge and the judge deliver you to the officer and you be cast into prison."); reconcile
intransitive verb use-to gain or try to gain someone's friendship or goodwill; pacify
conciliable, conciliatory.adjectives
conciliation, conciliator.nouns

consilience.noun
agreement.between the the approaches to a topic; the linking together of principles from different disciplines when forming a comprehensive theory (trying to improve the educational experience, the planners consulted.psychology and behavioral science books)

carbonate, carbonated, carbonating, carbonates.transitive verbs
to charge a beverage, for example with carbon dioxide gas; to burn to carbon; carbonize; to change into a carbonate
carbonate.noun
a salt or ester of carbonic acid
carbonation.noun,.plural.carbonations
carbonator.noun,.plural.carbonators

carbonize, carbonized, carbonizing, carbonizes.transitive verbs
to reduce or convert a carbon containing substance to carbon, as by partial burning; to coat or combine with carbon (the kids had mom put black on their faces by her first partially burning an authentic cork stopper she had from a used up wine bottle and then, once the cork was blackened a bit, she daubed it on their faces)
carbonization.noun,.plural.carbonizations
the process of carbonizing; the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, done in the absence of air.in order to.obtain.coke and other fractions having a greater percentage of carbon than the original.material
carbonizer.noun

carbon.noun
the element with an atomic number of 6 and relative mass of 12.01; carbon is what it is because of the activity the electron in its atomic structure
carbonous.adjective

carbolic acid.noun
also called phenol; a dangerous.caustic, poisonous, white crystalline compound, C6H5OH, derived from benzene.and used in resins, plastics and pharmaceuticals and in dilute form as a disinfectant and antiseptic to kill harmful.bacteria, but kills good bacteria as well; any of a class of aromatic organic compounds having at least one hydroxyl group attached directly to the benzene ring

CO2.(carbon dioxide)
also called carbonic acid gas; a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO2, formed during respiration, combustion and organic decomposition.and used in food refrigeration, carbonated beverages, inert atmospheres, fire extinguishers and aerosols; carbon dioxide is so necessary for life on Earth as trees and all such vegetation take in carbon dioxide that humans and animals breath out and in turn they give off life giving oxygen humans and animals need to survive; carbon dioxide and oxygen are our friends

carbonic acid.noun
a weak, unstable acid, H2CO3 (2 parts hydrogen & 3 parts carbon dioxide), present in solutions of carbon dioxide in water

carnal.adjective
bodily; fleshly; selfish; of low consciousness; physical; temporal (temporary); corporeal; without spiritual concern; having only concern when there is something you can gain for yourself
carnally.adverb
carnality.noun

carpe diem.noun
the admonition to seize the pleasures of the moment without thought for the future

carriage.noun
posture; deportment; manner of bearing the body

cede, ceded, ceding, cedes.transitive verbs
to surrender possession of, especially by treaty; relinquish; to yield; grant

courage.noun
the state or quality of mind or spirit that enables one to face fear or vicissitudes with self-possession, confidence and resolution; bravery (courage without wisdom is stupidity)
courageous.adjective
having or characterized by courage; valiant; brave
courageously.adverb
courageousness.noun

couch, couched, couching, couches.verbs
transitive verb use.to word in a certain.manner; phrase (couched their protests in diplomatic language); to embroider by laying thread flat on a surface and fastening it by stitches at regular intervals; to spread (grain) on a couch to germinate, as in malting; to lower a spear, for example, to horizontal position, as for an attack
intransitive verb use.to lie down; recline, as for rest; to lie in ambush or concealment (playing hide and seek with the kids who couched themselves into a pile of leaves); lurk; to be in a heap or pile, as leaves for decomposition or fermentation
couch.noun,.plural.couches
a sofa; a layer of grain, usually barley, spread to germinate; a priming coat of paint or varnish used in artistic painting
coucher.noun

couch potato.noun,.plural.couch potatoes
a couch potato is someone who spends most of their time watching television and does not get involved with either society or exercise or have any interesting hobbies (couch potatoes flicking through endless satellite TV channels)

ça va sans dire (French)
it goes without saying

c'est-à-dire (French)
that is to say; namely

Constitution of the United States of America.(pic of US)
A system of fundamental laws of the United States of America, the first ten amendments of which are called the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights is based upon the Articles of Confederation, which was the first constitution.of the United States of America.

The U.S.A. Constitution provides for a federal.system, by the individual states having granted to the federal government.certain powers for the exercise of the national government, retaining.severally the right of Eminent Domain over the lands within the boundaries of their own individual states.

The United States of America in its constitution assured that no large state such as say California, would be able to use its massive population base.(majority rule).to override concerns of say tiny Rhode Island..All.states have two senators and one governor. On the surace it appears as an equitable setup and


something Canadians should at least consider if they ever get around to setting up a proper federal government, as her sisters Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, etc. have already done.

From Michal Tsarion.(redicecreations.com/webcast/):."They insist that the so-called "United States" is not the same thing as the so called "United States of America." Nevertheless, due to deliberate misinformation and conditioning, most people do believe that the terms refer to one and the same entity. They are certainly not inclined to think of the 'United States' as a foreign corporation. 
   Furthermore, the drafters of the Constitution intentionally saw to it that the term 'United States' had more than one meaning. Specifically, they knew the term did not refer to citizens of a state. Once upon a time, in America, you could have been a citizen of a state without being a citizen of the nation. This political idiosyncrasy did not suit the Federalists and so they ingeniously manipulated the words and terms we have become familiar with. It is a old trick and it serves the cause of totalitarians no end.".They play with words, the meanings being one thing for them and another for you. And this even carries over into the medical system...example.

The Constitution.(picture of is 'We The People', just above).was drawn up by 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia during the summer of 1787 and ratified by the states in 1788. The Constitution defines distinct powers for the Congress of the United States, the president and the federal courts. This division of authority is known as a system of checks and balances and it ensures that none of the branches of government can dominate the others. The Constitution also establishes and limits the authority of the federal government over the states and spells out freedoms and liberties for U.S. citizens.

Forces That Shaped The US Constitution:.In 1774 the Parliament of Great Britain capped a series of abuses against the American colonies by imposing a tax on tea imports to the colonies. The colonies quickly agreed to convene a Continental Congress, which in 1776 appointed two committees; one to draft the Declaration of Independence and the other to prepare a "form of confederation" among the colonies. In 1778 this second committee produced the Articles of Confederation. They took effect in 1781 when Maryland, the last holdout state, ratified them.

The Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, established a league of friendship among the states, but not a political union. Each state remained separate and sovereign (under self rule). The central government consisted of a one chamber Congress, in which each state had a single vote. Congress had few powers, lacking even the authority to impose taxes. Any congressional action required the approval of 9 of the 13 states. The government had no president and no central court.

After numerous votes settled the details, a committee on style and revision was assigned in to put the final results in language to submit to the people for ratification.

Two political dignitaries had great influence on the creation of the Constitution..John Locke.(1632-1704), an important British political philosopher, had a large impact through his.Second Treatise of Government.(1690). Locke argued that sovereignty resides in individuals,.not rulers..A political state, he described, comes forth from a social contract.(informal).among the people, who consent to form a government of their creation, in order to preserve their lives, liberties and property. In the words of.the Declaration of Independence, which drew heavily on Locke."governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed and that a government's existence can only be justified by its ability to protect the human rights better than individuals could on their own". (but, it was later found out, the whole thing was a con of the people {taroscopes.com/miscellanous-pages/weapons-additional.html}.where the would be world controllers would maintain their conspiracies)

The framers of the U.S. Constitution put the Constitution above legislative power, indeed, above all governmental powers. The Constitution, particularly the Supremacy Clause of Article VI, establishes the "rule of law," the idea that the government itself, including the president and Congress, must abide by the law the individual states agreed that they would follow.

The Constitution had to be ratified by nine states before it could take effect.

The Constitution spells out in six articles (sections) the powers of the federal government and the states (the Constitution does not include the term 'separation of powers'). 

No member of Congress may serve simultaneously as a member of the executive branch. This separation differs strikingly from the Canadian and British practice, in which the prime minister and other executive officials are.also members of Parliament (in Canada under some previous regimes it was 'don't trust the people, we have to control them'; in the USA it was set up to be 'we don't trust the fed and we are controlling them or at least that's the way it started out). Comprised from Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The complete United States (of America) Constitution:
[1787]{1}

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfareand secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I

Section 1--All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2--1 The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

2 No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3 [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.]{2} The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

4 When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

5 The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3--1 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,]{3} for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

2 Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; [and if Vacancies happen by Resignation or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies].{4}

3 No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4 The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

5 The Senate shall chuse their other Officers and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

6 The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

7 Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4--1 The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

2 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year and such Meeting shall [be on the first Monday in December,]{5} unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5--1 Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

2 Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

3 Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

4 Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6--1 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

2 No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7--1 All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

2 Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

3 Every Order, Resolution or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8--1 The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2 To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

3 To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations and among the several States and with the Indian Tribes;

4 To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5 To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof and of foreign Coinand fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

6 To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

7 To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

8 To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

9 To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

10 To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas and Offences against the Law of Nations;

11 To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

12 To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

13 To provide and maintain a Navy;

14 To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

15 To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

16 To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining, the Militiaand for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

17 To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;--And

18 To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9--1 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

2 The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

3 No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

4 No Capitation or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.{6}

5 No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

6 No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay Duties in another.

7 No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

8 No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

Section 10--1 No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts or grant any Title of Nobility.

2 No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

3 No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State or with a foreign Power or engage in War, unless actually invaded or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II

Section I--1 The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

2 Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

[The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the Statesand a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.]{7}

3 The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electorsand the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

4 No Person except a natural born Citizen or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Yearsand been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

5 In Case of the Removal of the President from Office or of his Death, Resignation or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office,{8} the Same shall devolve on the Vice Presidentand the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed or a President shall be elected.

6 The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been electedand he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States or any of them.

7 Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United Statesand will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section 2--1 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Officesand he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

2 He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominateand by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Courtand all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided forand which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law or in the Heads of Departments.

3 The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3--He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses or either of themand in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executedand shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4-- The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment forand Conviction of, Treason, Bribery or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III

Section 1-- The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Courtand in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviourand shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2--1 The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States and Treaties made or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State;{9}--between Citizens of different States,--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different Statesand between a State or the Citizens thereofand foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

2 In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consulsand those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptionsand under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

3 The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3--1 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act or on Confession in open Court.

2 The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article IV

Section 1-- Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Recordsand judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be provedand the Effect thereof.

Section 2--1 The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

2 A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

3 [No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.]{10}

Section 3--1 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

2 The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States or of any particular State.

Section 4-- The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided [that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and]{11} that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI

1 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

2 This Constitutionand the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

3 The Senators and Representatives before mentionedand the Members of the several State Legislaturesand all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth

IN WITNESS whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

Go. WASHINGTON--Presidt. and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire. John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts. Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut. Wm. Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York. Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey. Wil: Livingston, David Brearley, Wm. Paterson, Jona: Dayton

Pennsylvania. B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo.Clymer, Thos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware. Geo: Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco: Broom

Maryland. James McHenry, Dan of St Thos. Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia. John Blair--, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina. Wm. Blount, Rich'd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina. J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia. William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary

Articles in addition to and amendment of, The Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress and ratified by the legislatures of the several states pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution.

The first 10 amendments to the Constitution were proposed by the Congress on Sept. 25, 1789. They were ratified by the following states and the notifications of the ratification by the governors thereof were successively communicated by the President to the Congress: New Jersey, Nov. 20, 1789; Maryland, Dec. 19, 1789; North Carolina, Dec. 22, 1789; South Carolina, Jan. 19, 1790; New Hampshire, Jan. 25, 1790; Delaware, Jan. 28, 1790; New York, Feb. 4, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; Rhode Island, June 7, 1790; Vermont, Nov. 3, 1791; and Virginia, Dec. 15, 1791. Ratification was completed on Dec. 15, 1791.

The amendments were subsequently ratified by Massachusetts, March 2, 1939; Georgia, March 18, 1939; and Connecticut, April 19, 1939.

Two other amendments were concurrently proposed in 1789. One failed of ratification. The other (Amendment XXVII) was not ratified until May 7, 1992, when the Michigan legislature gave it the required number of state approvals.

Amendment [I]{12} Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment [II] A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment [III] No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment [IV] The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papersand effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violatedand no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmationand particularly describing the place to be searchedand the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment [V] No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

Amendment [VI] In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by lawand to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favorand to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

Amendment [VII] In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preservedand no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment [VIII] Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment [IX] The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment [X] The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people.

Amendment [XI] [1795] The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Amendment [XII] [1804] The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as Presidentand in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice Presidentand they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as Presidentand of all persons voted for as Vice Presidentand of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;--The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the statesand a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.]{13} The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointedand if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senatorsand a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States.

Amendment XIII [1865] Section 1--Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2--Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XIV [1868] Section 1--All persons born or naturalized in the United Statesand subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2--Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,{14} and citizens of the United States or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3--No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress or elector of President and Vice President or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress or as an officer of the United States or as a member of any State legislature or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4--The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5--The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Amendment XV [1870] Section 1--The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2--The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XVI [1913] The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several Statesand without regard to any census or enumeration.

Amendment [XVII] [1913] The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Amendment [XVIII] [1919]{15} Section 1--After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2--The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3--This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment [XIX] [1920] The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment [XX] [1933] Section 1--The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of Januaryand the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2--The Congress shall assemble at least once in every yearand such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3--{16}If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selectedand such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4--The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon themand for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5--Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6--This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Amendment [XXI] [1933] Section 1--The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2--The transportation or importation into any State, Territory or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3--This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment [XXII] [1951] Section 1--No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twiceand no person who has held the office of President or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congressand shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2--This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

Amendment [XXIII] [1961] Section 1--The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2--The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment [XXIV] [1964] Section 1--The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2--The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment [XXV] [1967] Section 1--In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2--Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3--Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his officeand until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4--Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Amendment [XXVI] [1971] Section 1--The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2--The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment [XXVII] [1992] No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
Notes

{1} This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by General Washington and the deputies from 12 states. The superior number preceding the paragraphs designates the number of the clause; it was not in the original.

{2} The part included in brackets was changed by section 2 of the 14th amendment.

{3} The part included in brackets was changed by section 1 of the 17th amendment.

{4} The part included in brackets was changed by clause 2 of the 17th amendment.

{5} The part included in brackets was changed by section 2 of the 20th amendment.

{6} See also the 16th amendment.

{7} This paragraph has been superseded by the 12th amendment.

{8} This provision has been affected by the 25th amendment.

{9} This clause has been affected by the 11th amendment.

{10} This paragraph has been superseded by the 13th amendment.

{11} Obsolete.

{12} Only Amendments XIII, XIV, XVand XVI had numbers assigned to them at the time of ratification.

{13} The part included in brackets has been superseded by section 3 of Amendment XX.

{14} See Amendment XXVI.

{15} Repealed by section 1 of Amendment XXI.

{16} See Amendment XXV.

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