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Interlinked Dictionary© based on 
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary (m-w.com)
and Star Dictionary
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James, William 1842-1910 American psychologist and philosopher, founder of pragmatism and the psychological movement of functionalism, he developed an approach to intellectual issues that greatly influenced American thought. His works include The Will to Believe (1897) and The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902).

Jeanne d'Arc aka Joan of Arc
Declared to be a saint. French name Jeanne d'Arc (zhän därkô) Known as "the Maid of Orléans" and "La Pucelle", 1412?-1431, French military leader and heroine. Inspired and directed by religious visions, she organized the French resistance that forced the English to end their siege of Orléans (1429). The same year she led an army of 12,000 to Rheims, she had the dauphin (eldest son of the king of France) crowned Charles VII  From 1349 to 1830, the name dauphin was used as a title for such a nobleman. She was captured and sold to the English by the Burgundians (1430), she was later tried for heresy and sorcery and was burned at the stake in Rouen. She was canonized in 1920.

Johnson, Samuel known as "Dr. Johnson". 1709-1784
British writer and lexicographer (writes, compiles dictionaries). The leading literary figure in the second half of the 18th century, he wrote Dictionary of the English Language (1755) and Lives of the Poets (1779-1781).

Jefferson, Thomas (1743-1826)
author of the.Declaration of Independence, 1776 and a principal leader in the American Revolution and the third president of the United States of America, 1801-1809. Jefferson is also regarded as a great political thinker and diplomat. The U.S.A. doubled its area in 1803 when he bought territory west of the Mississippi called the Louisiana Purchase.

Jefferson swore his hostility; he said, to "every form of tyranny over the mind of man." During his lifetime he sought to develop a government that would best assure the freedom and wellbeing of the individual (*). Quotes of his 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

Jefferson said "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal.("It is the mark of the cultured man that he is aware of the fact that equality is an ethical and not a biological principle."....Ashley Montagu, British anthropologist, humanist (1905-1999), that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness."....Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Jefferson apparently gained his inspiration from the Virginia Declaration of Rights, June 12, 1776, drafted by George Mason. Article I:.That all men are by nature equally free and independent and have certain inherent rights, of which, when they enter into a state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.

Benjamin Jowett, 1817-1893. British classical.scholar and clergyman known for his translations of Plato and Aristotle; some of his quotes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

jab, jabbed, jabbing, jabs.transitive verbs
to poke or thrust abruptly, especially with something sharp; to stab or pierce; to thrust into or against with a rough, abrupt movement; to punch with short blows
intransitive verb use.to make an abrupt poking or thrusting motion; to deliver a quick punch
jab.noun
a quick stab or blow; a short straight punch in boxing

jumble, jumbled, jumbling, jumbles.verbs
transitive verb use.to mix in a confused way; throw together carelessly (jumble socks in a heap in the closet); muddle; confuse (the rapid fire questioning jumbled the witness's thoughts)
intransitive verb use.to be mixed in a confused way (dividers that keep the files from jumbling)
jumble.noun
a confused or disordered mass.(a jumble of paper scraps in a drawer); a disordered state; a muddle

jurisprudence.noun
Law:.the philosophy or science of law
jurisprudentially.adverb
jurisprudential.adjective

jury.noun,.plural.juries
Law:.a body of persons sworn to judge and give a verdict on a given.matter; a committee, usually of experts, that judges contestants or applicants, as in a competition or an exhibition (her horse was selected as the winner); a panel of judges
jury, juried, jurying, juries.transitive verbs
to judge or evaluate by a jury (jurying submitted samples for a crafts fair)
juror.noun,.plural.jurors
Law:.one who serves as a member of a jury

Carl Gustav Jung 1875-1961
Swiss psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology. Among his contributions to the understanding of the human mind are the concepts of extraversion and introversion and the notion of the collective unconscious (mass mind). Jung's works include The Psychology of the Unconscious, 1912 and Psychological Types, 1921. A few of his quotes 1, 2, 3.

jiggery-pokery.noun
underhand.scheming or behavior; trickery

jitter, jittered, jittering, jitters.intransitive verbs
to be nervous or uneasy; fidget
jitter.noun,.plural.jitters
a jittering movement; a tic

juxtapose, juxtaposed, juxtaposing, juxtaposes.transitive verbs
to place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast

juxtaposition.noun
the act or an instance of juxtaposing or the state of being juxtaposed
juxtapositional.adjective

jubilee.noun,.plural.jubilees
a specially celebrated anniversary, especially a 50th anniversary; the celebration of such an anniversary; a season or an occasion of joyful celebration; jubilation; rejoicing
Bible:.Jubilee: In the Hebrew Scriptures, a year of rest to be observed by the Israelites every 50th year, as per instructions in the Old Testament, during which slaves were to be set free, alienated property restored to the former owners and the lands left untilled; comprised with Fausset's Bible Dictionary: The jubilee prevented the accumulation of land in the hands of a few and raised legally at regular intervals families and individuals out of destitution, thereby guarding against the lawless and dangerous outbreaks of the penniless against others. It tended to foster family feeling and to promote the preservation of genealogies and to remind all that the Creator was the supreme Landlord under whom their tenure was held and therefore they could not become lasting servants of anyone else;
comprised with Easton's Bible Dictionary: A joyful shout or clangour of trumpets, the name of the great semi-centennial festival of the Hebrews. It lasted for a year. During this year the land was to be fallow and the Israelites were only permitted to gather the spontaneous produce of the fields:
Leviticus 25th chapter
-all landed property during that year reverted to its original owner -all who were slaves were set free
-all debts were forgiven

The return of the jubilee year was proclaimed by a blast of trumpets which sounded throughout the land. 

The advantages of this institution were many: 
1. It would prevent the accumulation of land on the part of a few to the detriment of the community at large. 
2. It would render it impossible for any one to be born to absolute poverty, since every one had his hereditary land. 
3. It would preclude those inequalities which are produced by extremes of riches and poverty and which make one man domineer over another. 
4. It would utterly do away with slavery. 
5. It would afford a fresh opportunity to those who were reduced by adverse circumstances to begin again their career of industry in the patrimony which they had temporarily forfeited. 
6. It would periodically rectify the disorders which crept into the state in the course of time, preclude the division of the people into nobles and plebeians and preserve the theocracy inviolate.

jubilant.adjective
exultingly.joyful; expressing joy
jubilantly.adverb
jubilance.noun,.plural.jubilances

jubilation.noun,.plural.jubilations
the act of rejoicing; the condition or feeling of being jubilant; a celebration or other expression of joy

jostle, jostled, jostling, jostles.verbs
intransitive verb use.to come in rough contact while moving; push and shove (jostled against the others on the crowded platform and then again at the big grand opening sale at the clothing store); to make one's way amongst a mass of people by pushing or elbowing (jostled through the guests to the bar); to vie for an advantage or a position; to be in close proximity
transitive verb use.to come into rough contact with while moving (messengers who jostle pedestrians on the sidewalk); to force by pushing or elbowing (jostled my way through the crowded street); to vie with for an advantage or a position
jostle.noun,.plural.jostles
a rough shove or push; the condition of being crowded together (we were jostled all into a cramped area)
jostler.noun,.plural.jostlers
one who jostles others

joy.noun,.plural.joys
a joy is something or someone that makes you feel happy (one can never learn all there is to know about cooking and that is one of the joys of being a chef; the look of joy on her face when we gave him his first bicycle; it's nice to go away but it's always a joy to come back to one's home); delight; if you get no joy, you do not have success or luck in achieving what you are trying to do
joy, joyed, joying, joys.verbs
intransitive verb use.to take great pleasure; rejoice
transitive verb use.to fill with happiness, pleasure and/or satisfaction; to enjoy; joy is...
joyous.adjective
feeling or causing joy; joyful; glad
joyously.adverb
joyousness.noun
joyful.adjective
feeling, causing or indicating joy; glad
joyfully.adverb
joyfulness.noun

jar.noun,.plural.jars
a cylindrical glass or earthenware vessel with a wide mouth and usually no handles; the amount that a jar can hold (looks like a one pint jar will hold the stuff)
jar, jarred, jarring, jars.transitive verbs
to put into a glass or earthen jar; a container
jarful.noun,.plural.jarfuls

jar, jarred, jarring, jars.verbs
intransitive verb use.to make or utter a harsh sound; to be disturbing or irritating; grate: (the incessant clanking jarred on my nerves)
intransitive verb use.to bump or cause to move or shake from impact; to startle or unsettle; shock
jar.noun,.plural.jars
a jolt; a shock; collision
jarringly.adverb

jolt, jolted, jolting, jolts.verbs
transitive verb use.to move or dislodge with a sudden, hard blow; to strike heavily or jarringly (jolted a person by inadvertently bumping into him; an impact that jolted the mailbox loose); to cause to move jerkily (stops and starts that jolted the passengers); to make suddenly active or effective (the description of the farmhouse jolted my memory); stun (she was jolted by the unexpected friendliness of so many)
intransitive verb use.to proceed in an irregular, bumpy or jerky.fashion
jolt.noun,.plural.jolts
a sudden jarring or jerking, as from a bump or an abrupt movement (received a jolt when the vehicle went over the bump); a sudden, strong feeling of surprise or disappointment; a shock (the unexpected good news came as a jolt); a brief strong portion (a jolt of electricity; a good jolt of humor)
joltily.adverb
jolter, joltiness.nouns
jolty.adjective

jejunum.noun,.plural.jejuna
the section of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum

jejune.adjective
not interesting; dull (another jejune play I'll avoid); jejune suggests a lack of rewarding or satisfying substance (a jejune and gassy speech); if you describe something or someone as jejune, you feel that they are being very simple and unsophisticated (they were of great service in correcting my jejune generalizations); if you describe something or someone as jejune, you mean they are dull and boring (we knew we were in for a pretty long, jejune evening); lacking.maturity; childish (surprised by the jejune responses to problems from so-called.professionals); lacking in nutrition (a jejune diet)
jejunely.adverb
jejuneness.noun

jaundice.noun
yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues; it occurs as a symptom of various diseases, such as hepatitis, that affect the processing of bile; also called icterus

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