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C r e a t i o n  I n d e x

C r e a t i o n  N o t e s  p a g e  8

Most evolutionists think that the history of biological evolution is the result of highly improbable events occurring without any noticeable direction. To believe this requires great belief in illusion.

At least Professor Dawkins admits evolution isn't progressive.."A moth has no way to change its color.(*).over the course of its lifetime, even if it could somehow figure out that making the change would be advantageous. And if the moth can't adjust its color, it obviously cannot transmit any adjustments to its descendants. A moth's acquired.pigment.(due to sooty pollution).is no more heritable than a suntan."
    And Brian Hayes' comment.

-Photosynthesis:.the formation of carbohydrates in living plants from water and carbon dioxide.(CO2).by the action of Sunlight on the chlorophyl. The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis. Plants and microbes convert solar energy into usable chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. 

When a photosynthesizing cell catches a photon its potency causes a reaction in the cell that affects many adjacent.molecules.

Organisms use the process of photosynthesis to convert CO2 from the air as the material for making sugar molecules. What the body uses in nutrition from food is converted first into sugars. Don't confuse this with the denatured chemically produced white sugar, often containing ground up animal bone and other ingredients also used in common table salt, that are slow poisons to the body and not the synthetic sweeteners that are even worse for the body. Get organic sweeteners and sea salt from France, one is Palodar brand, that is grey that has not been processed white, just Sun dried and has many other good minerals in it. It's just the name that's the same. Just as the word people denotes different ones, so do the words sugar, salt and sea salt.

The photosynthetic process is complex involving biochemical reactions which include electron transfer through pigment molecules and amino acid residues, along with splitting water releasing oxygen, itself a complex process. 

This amazingly effective photosynthetic apparatus is 'difficult' to improve upon by genetic manipulation.(changing amino acid residues or introducing or deleting genes), as it always works at an optimum consistently, or life would not be here at all, or at least, not the way we today undertand life to be. humanity's genetic tampering produces products less so and most highly dangerous. Look what tampering with the atom gave us, atomic and hydrogen bombs and worse as shown in Dr Greer's Expose of the National Security State.video. Tinkerers with nature haven't learned the axiom, 'if it ain't broke, don't fix it'.

"Making the sugars also requires energy and electron use with the energy coming from Sunlight and the electron part coming ultimately from water. And in the process, the water that releases its electron is converted to oxygen. Plants assemble the sugars into a variety of carbohydrates that are either eaten as grains, fruits and vegetables or burned as coal and the derivatives of oil petroleum.

"The entire process is driven by Sunlight, whose energy is absorbed by a variety of types of pigments, especially the chlorophylls and carotenoids. This is why plants are green: Chlorophylls absorb blue and red light and carotenoids absorb blue green light, leaving only the green and yellow light to be reflected or transmitted by leaves. 

"The units by which photosynthetic organisms capture the energy of light are called photosystems. They are somewhat like a satellite dish antenna, in that from 100 to 5,000 pigment molecules.(called collectively the 'antenna').are clustered around a central receiving unit, which is called the reaction center. The photosystems are pigment/protein complexes located in specialized membranes called thylakoids. In plants and algae, these thylakoids are located inside cells in photosynthetic compartments called chloroplasts

"The photosynthetic pigments are held in the appropriate orientation and position by proteins. When light energy is absorbed by an individual pigment molecule, the molecule reaches an excited state, and the molecule's newly acquired excitation energy is transferred from one pigment to the next until it reaches the reaction center chlorophyl. Here is where the real 'magic' of photosynthesis occurs: The excitation energy is converted to chemical energy as it is used for charge separation, in which electron transfer occurs toward a neighboring pigment. The reaction center and antenna work well together to maintain a high rate of electron transfer, even at lower light intensities.

"The initial transfer of an electron from the chlorophyl in the reaction center leaves an 'electron hole' in the chlorophyl that is soon refilled. The transferred electron.(pattern of direction for it to go), meanwhile, proceeds through a long series of electron transfer reactions, being passed along a chain of cofactors.(which are molecules bound to specific proteins). A crucial aspect of the process is that the flow of electrons.(because of speed, seems like many).from water to NADP also produces a proton.gradient across the thylakoid membrane.

This proton gradient is used for synthesizing the high energy molecule ATP.(adenosine triphosphate), which works together in electron transfer on NADP in converting CO2 from the air into sugars. Because the ATP and NADP are storage molecules, they can complete their task of fixing CO2 independent of the presence of light. The set of reactions that together achieve CO2 fixation is referred to as the Calvin Benson cycle.


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