think that the history of biological evolution is the result of highly
improbable events occurring without any noticeable direction. To believe
this requires great belief
At least Professor
Dawkins admits evolution
moth has no way to change its color.(*).over
the course of its lifetime, even if it could somehow figure out that making
the change would be advantageous.
And if the moth can't adjust its color, it obviously cannot transmit any
adjustments to its descendants.
to sooty pollution).is
no more heritable
than a suntan."
formation of carbohydrates
in living plants from water and carbon
the action of Sunlight on the chlorophyl.
is the site of photosynthesis. Plants and
convert solar energy into usable chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis.
When a photosynthesizing
cell catches a photon
its potency causes a reaction in the cell that affects many adjacent.molecules.
use the process of photosynthesis to convert CO2 from the air
as the material for making sugar molecules. What the body uses in nutrition
from food is converted first into sugars. Don't confuse this with the denatured
chemically produced white sugar, often containing ground up animal bone
and other ingredients also used in common table salt, that are slow poisons
to the body and not the synthetic sweeteners that are even worse for the
body. Get organic sweeteners and sea salt from France, one is Palodar brand,
that is grey that has not been processed white, just Sun dried and has
many other good minerals in it. It's just the name that's the same. Just
as the word people denotes different ones, so do the words sugar, salt
and sea salt.
The photosynthetic process
is complex involving
reactions which include electron transfer through pigment
molecules and amino
acid residues, along with splitting water releasing oxygen, itself
a complex process.
This amazingly effective
is 'difficult' to improve upon by genetic manipulation.(changing
amino acid residues or introducing or deleting genes),
as it always works at an
consistently, or life would not be here at all, or at least, not the way
we today undertand life to be. humanity's genetic tampering
produces products less so and most highly dangerous. Look what tampering
with the atom gave us, atomic and hydrogen bombs and worse as shown in
Dr Greer's Expose of the National Security State.video.
with nature haven't learned the axiom,
'if it ain't broke, don't fix it'.
"Making the sugars also requires
energy and electron
use with the energy coming from Sunlight and the electron part coming ultimately
from water. And in the process, the water that releases its electron is
converted to oxygen. Plants assemble the sugars into a variety of carbohydrates
that are either eaten as grains, fruits and vegetables or burned as coal
and the derivatives
of oil petroleum.
"The entire process is driven
by Sunlight, whose energy is absorbed by a variety of types of pigments,
especially the chlorophylls and carotenoids. This is why plants are green:
Chlorophylls absorb blue and red light and carotenoids
absorb blue green light, leaving only the green and yellow light to be
reflected or transmitted by leaves.
"The units by which photosynthetic
organisms capture the energy of light are called photosystems. They are
somewhat like a satellite dish antenna, in that from 100 to 5,000 pigment
collectively the 'antenna').are
clustered around a central receiving unit, which is called the reaction
center. The photosystems are pigment/protein complexes located in specialized
membranes called thylakoids. In plants and algae, these thylakoids are
located inside cells in photosynthetic compartments called chloroplasts.
"The photosynthetic pigments
are held in the appropriate orientation and position by proteins.
When light energy is absorbed by an individual pigment molecule, the molecule
reaches an excited state, and the molecule's newly acquired excitation
energy is transferred from one pigment to the next until it reaches the
reaction center chlorophyl.
Here is where the real 'magic' of photosynthesis occurs: The excitation
energy is converted to chemical energy as it is used for charge separation,
in which electron transfer occurs toward a neighboring pigment. The reaction
center and antenna work well together to maintain a high rate of electron
transfer, even at lower light intensities.
"The initial transfer of
an electron from the chlorophyl in the reaction center leaves an 'electron
hole' in the chlorophyl that is soon refilled. The transferred electron.(pattern
of direction for it to go), meanwhile,
proceeds through a long series of electron transfer reactions, being passed
along a chain of cofactors.(which
are molecules bound to specific proteins).
A crucial aspect of the process is that the flow of electrons.(because
of speed, seems like
water to NADP also
across the thylakoid
gradient is used for synthesizing the high energy molecule ATP.(adenosine
triphosphate), which works together
transfer on NADP in
CO2 from the air into sugars. Because the ATP and NADP are
storage molecules, they can complete their task of fixing CO2
independent of the presence of light. The set of reactions that together
achieve CO2 fixation is referred to as the Calvin Benson cycle.