ancient remains of a Phoenician settlement are found at the site of Nora,
on the island of Sardinia, Italy. The earliest Phoenician remains date
from B.C.E. 7th century.
"Phoenicia, ancient designation
of a narrow strip of territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean
Sea, now largely in modern Lebanon. The territory, about 200 miles.(320
and from 5 to 15 miles.(8
to 25 km).wide,
was bounded on the east by the Lebanon Mountains. The southern boundary
was Mount Carmel; the northern boundary was generally accepted to be the
Eleutherus River, now called the Kabîr, which forms the northern
boundary of Lebanon.
"Phoenicia was not a unified
state but a group of city-kingdoms, one of which usually dominated the
others. The most important of these cities were Simyra, Zarephath.(Sarafand),
Byblos, Jubeil, Arwad.(Rouad),
Gebal north of Beirut, Arvad or Arados and Zemar. The two most dominant
were Tyre and Sidon, which alternated as sites of the ruling power.
"The Phoenicians, called
in the Old Testament and Phoenicians by the Greek poet Homer, were Semites,
related to the Canaanites
of ancient Palestine.
Historical research indicates that they founded their first settlements
on the Mediterranean coast about B.C.E. 2500. Early in their history, they
developed under the influence of the Sumerian
and Akkadian cultures of nearby Babylon. About B.C.E. 1800 Egypt, which
was then beginning to acquire an empire in the Middle East, invaded and
took control of Phoenicia, holding it until about B.C.E. 1400. The raids
of the Hittites against Egyptian territory gave the Phoenician cities an
opportunity to revolt and by B.C.E. 1100 they were independent of Egypt.
fell during the late 7th century B.C.E., Phoenicia, except for Tyre, which
succeeded in maintaining its independence until about B.C.E. 538, was incorporated
into the Chaldean
Empire of Nebuchadnezzar II
and in B.C.E. 539, became part of the Persian Empire. Under Persian rule
Sidon became the leading city of Phoenicia.
"When Alexander the Great
of Macedonia invaded Asia and defeated Persia in B.C.E. 333, Sidon, Arwad
and Byblos capitulated to Macedonia. Tyre again refused to submit and it
took Alexander a 7-month siege in B.C.E. 332 to capture the city. After
this defeat the Phoenicians gradually lost their separate identity as they
were absorbed into the Greco-Macedonian empire. The cities became Hellenized
and in B.C.E. 64, even the name of Phoenicia disappeared, when the territory
was made part of the Roman province of Syria..Microsoft®
Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 All rights reserved.
Phenice was a territory
of the province of Syria,
situated on the coast of the Mediterranean between the river Eleutherus
and the promontory
of Carmel, some 30 miles.(50
Bible and the Monuments.as
the Egyptian inscriptions Phoenicia is called Keft, the inhabitants being
Kefa and since Keft-ur or 'greater Phoenicia' was the name given to the
of the Nile from the Phoenician colonies settled upon it, the Philistines
who came from Caphtor or Keft-ur
must have been of Phoenician origin. Trade routes from all Asia
on the Phoenician coast; the centres of commerce on the Euphrates
and Tigris rivers, forwarding their goods by way of Tyre
to the Nile, to Arabia and to the west and on the other hand, the productions
of the vast regions bordering the Mediterranean passing through the Canaanite
capital to the eastern world."
Phoenicia lay in the very
centre of the old world and was the natural entrepot.(market
commerce with foreign nations. It was the 'England of antiquity'.
Phenice was situated
at the entry of the sea, a merchant port city of the people for many isles:.Ezekiel
27:3,4. Phoenicians were renowned
in ancient times
for the manufacture
of glass and some of the specimens
of this work that have been preserved
are still the wonder of mankind.
The far reaching commercial
activity of the Phoenicians, especially with.Tarshish.(a
Phoenician colony in the south of Spain; different than Tarsus,
a city in Turkey).and
the western world, enriched them with vast wealth, which introduced boundless
luxury and developed among them a great activity in all manner of arts
New Testament Notes:."Phoenicia
always depended for its cereal supplies on the harvests of Palestine.(Acts
it is evident that the famine was afflicting the Phoenicians at this time
no less than the Israelites."
In the matter of shipping,
whether ship building be thought of or traffic upon the sea, the Phoenicians
all other nations.
The Phoenicians were the
merchants of the old world, establishing colonies at various places, of
was the chief.
They were a Canaanite
branch of the race
and are frequently called.Sidonians.or.Zidonians.(natives
or inhabitants of Sidon),
from their principal city of Sidon/Zidon.
to hew timber like
unto the Sidonians":.1Kings
5:6. Zidonians often includes all the Phoenicians,
as well as the inhabitants of Zidon, the metropolis
of Phoenicia. The city of Zidon/Sidon
is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants.
Phoenicians have been regarded
as the inventors of alphabetic
the Phoenician alphabet was comprised
letters. The 24 letters in the Phoenician alphabet in
turn, make up today's Greek alphabet as they also did ancient Greek.
discovery of inscriptions
in Yemen and Hadramaut, Southern Arabia
known as Hemyaritic, have led to the conclusion that the Phoenician alphabet
from the even older in history,.Maonites:.Judges
10:10-12; 2Chronicles 26:7.
So, by this, the Phoenician alphabet ceases to be the mother alphabet.
The scholar Sayce thinks."it
is more than possible that the Egyptians themselves were emigrants
from Southern Arabia".
expressed their thoughts by certain symbols,
system of writing, such as that of ancient Egypt, in which pictorial symbols
are used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and
carvings styled because they were almost exclusively used on sacred subjects.