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P o t p o u r r i  P 2
(Potpourri Index)

Phoenicians:."Many ancient remains of a Phoenician settlement are found at the site of Nora, on the island of Sardinia, Italy. The earliest Phoenician remains date from B.C.E. 7th century.

"Phoenicia, ancient designation of a narrow strip of territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, now largely in modern Lebanon. The territory, about 200 miles.(320 km).long and from 5 to 15 miles.(8 to 25 km).wide, was bounded on the east by the Lebanon Mountains. The southern boundary was Mount Carmel; the northern boundary was generally accepted to be the Eleutherus River, now called the Kabîr, which forms the northern boundary of Lebanon. 

"Phoenicia was not a unified state but a group of city-kingdoms, one of which usually dominated the others. The most important of these cities were Simyra, Zarephath.(Sarafand), Byblos, Jubeil, Arwad.(Rouad), Acco.('Akko), Sidon.(ªaydâ), Tripolis.(Tripoli), Tyre.(Sur).and Berytus.(Beirut), Gebal north of Beirut, Arvad or Arados and Zemar. The two most dominant were Tyre and Sidon, which alternated as sites of the ruling power.

"The Phoenicians, called Sidonians in the Old Testament and Phoenicians by the Greek poet Homer, were Semites, related to the Canaanites of ancient Palestine. Historical research indicates that they founded their first settlements on the Mediterranean coast about B.C.E. 2500. Early in their history, they developed under the influence of the Sumerian and Akkadian cultures of nearby Babylon. About B.C.E. 1800 Egypt, which was then beginning to acquire an empire in the Middle East, invaded and took control of Phoenicia, holding it until about B.C.E. 1400. The raids of the Hittites against Egyptian territory gave the Phoenician cities an opportunity to revolt and by B.C.E. 1100 they were independent of Egypt.

"When Assyria fell during the late 7th century B.C.E., Phoenicia, except for Tyre, which succeeded in maintaining its independence until about B.C.E. 538, was incorporated into the Chaldean Empire of Nebuchadnezzar II and in B.C.E. 539, became part of the Persian Empire. Under Persian rule Sidon became the leading city of Phoenicia.

"When Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded Asia and defeated Persia in B.C.E. 333, Sidon, Arwad and Byblos capitulated to Macedonia. Tyre again refused to submit and it took Alexander a 7-month siege in B.C.E. 332 to capture the city. After this defeat the Phoenicians gradually lost their separate identity as they were absorbed into the Greco-Macedonian empire. The cities became Hellenized and in B.C.E. 64, even the name of Phoenicia disappeared, when the territory was made part of the Roman province of Syria..Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 All rights reserved.

Phenice was a territory of the province of Syria, situated on the coast of the Mediterranean between the river Eleutherus and the promontory of Carmel, some 30 miles.(50 km).long and 3.(5 km).broad.

From.Sayce's Bible and the Monuments.as reported in.Easton's Bible Dictionary:."In the Egyptian inscriptions Phoenicia is called Keft, the inhabitants being Kefa and since Keft-ur or 'greater Phoenicia' was the name given to the delta of the Nile from the Phoenician colonies settled upon it, the Philistines who came from Caphtor or Keft-ur must have been of Phoenician origin. Trade routes from all Asia converged on the Phoenician coast; the centres of commerce on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, forwarding their goods by way of Tyre to the Nile, to Arabia and to the west and on the other hand, the productions of the vast regions bordering the Mediterranean passing through the Canaanite capital to the eastern world."

Phoenicia lay in the very centre of the old world and was the natural entrepot.(market center).for commerce with foreign nations. It was the 'England of antiquity'.

Phenice was situated at the entry of the sea, a merchant port city of the people for many isles:.Ezekiel 27:3,4. Phoenicians were renowned in ancient times for the manufacture of glass and some of the specimens of this work that have been preserved are still the wonder of mankind. 

The far reaching commercial activity of the Phoenicians, especially with.Tarshish.(a Phoenician colony in the south of Spain; different than Tarsus, a city in Turkey).and the western world, enriched them with vast wealth, which introduced boundless luxury and developed among them a great activity in all manner of arts and manufactures.

Barnes New Testament Notes:."Phoenicia always depended for its cereal supplies on the harvests of Palestine.(Acts 12:20).and it is evident that the famine was afflicting the Phoenicians at this time no less than the Israelites."

In the matter of shipping, whether ship building be thought of or traffic upon the sea, the Phoenicians surpassed all other nations.

The Phoenicians were the most enterprising merchants of the old world, establishing colonies at various places, of which Carthage was the chief.

They were a Canaanite branch of the race of Ham and are frequently called.Sidonians.or.Zidonians.(natives or inhabitants of Sidon), from their principal city of Sidon/Zidon. None could."skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians":.1Kings 5:6. Zidonians often includes all the Phoenicians, as well as the inhabitants of Zidon, the metropolis of Phoenicia. The city of Zidon/Sidon is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants.

Phoenicians have been regarded as the inventors of alphabetic writing, however, the Phoenician alphabet was comprised using Hebrew letters. The 24 letters in the Phoenician alphabet in turn, make up today's Greek alphabet as they also did ancient Greek. 

Recent discovery of inscriptions in Yemen and Hadramaut, Southern Arabia known as Hemyaritic, have led to the conclusion that the Phoenician alphabet was derived from the even older in history,.Maonites:.Judges 10:10-12; 2Chronicles 26:7. So, by this, the Phoenician alphabet ceases to be the mother alphabet. The scholar Sayce thinks."it is more than possible that the Egyptians themselves were emigrants from Southern Arabia".

The Egyptians expressed their thoughts by certain symbols, called hieroglyphics.(a system of writing, such as that of ancient Egypt, in which pictorial symbols are used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and sound).i.e., sacred carvings styled because they were almost exclusively used on sacred subjects.

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