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Original Words Notes List

O r i g i n a l  W o r d s  N o t e s  C 2

avenger of blood: the nearest relative of a murdered person. It was his right and duty to slay the murderer.(2Samuel 14:7,11).if he found him outside of a city of refuge

-Chaldean/Chaldea:.Easton's Bible Dictionary: Employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old Testament:.Daniel 2:4-28. It is the Aramaic.dialect, as it is sometimes called, as distinguished from the Hebrew dialect.

It was the language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia and after the exile of the Israelites from Egypt, gradually came to be the popular language of Palestine. It is called 'Syrian' in.2Kings 18:26. Some isolated words in this language are preserved in the New Testament. These are specimens of the vernacular language of Palestine at that period. The term Hebrew was also sometimes applied to the Chaldee because it had become the language of the Hebrews:.John 5:2; 19:20.

The Chaldeans were known for their philosophies and were soothsayers. They studied mathematics and astrology, by which they pretended to foretell the destiny of men born under certain.constellations

Chaldea was an ancient region of southern Mesopotamia.settled B.C.E. 1000, it reached the height of its power under Nebuchadnezzar II:.Daniel 2:1.

Babylon was within the Chaldean area and the terms are often used synonymously.

The Chaldean empire and Babylon were destroyed by Persians in B.C.E. 539. Belshazzar, the last king, reigned B.C.E. 550-539.

-cities of refuge: were appointed for certain types of murder, where murderers could live out their lives ostracized from normal society:.Numbers 35:11 "Then you shall appoint you cities to be cities of refuge for you; that the slayer may flee thither, which killeth any person at unawares.(inadvertently). And they shall be unto you cities for refuge from the avenger; that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation in judgment."

Numbers 35:15-34; six cities of refuge.

In order that this law might be guarded against abuse, Moses 
appointed six cities of refuge:.Exodus 21:13

These were in different parts of the country and every facility was afforded the manslayer that he might flee to the city that lay nearest him for safety. Into the city of refuge the avenger durst not follow him. This arrangement applied only to cases where the death was not premeditated. The case had to be investigated by the authorities of the city and the wilful murderer was on no account to be spared. He was regarded as an impure and polluted person and was delivered up to the gaol.(jail):.Deuteronony 19:11-13

If the offence was merely manslaughter, then the fugitive must remain within the city till the death of the high priest:.Numbers 35:25.

-commandments/command:.John 15:10 "If you keep my commandments, you shall abide in my love, even as I have kept my Father's commandments and abide in his love." John 15:14 "You are my friends, if you do whatsoever I command you."

In Strong's Concordance the original bases to its Greek reference numbers go from 1785 to 1781 to 1722 and 5056 for this word 'commandments'. These numbers together point to 'the contents of the command', which is an instruction, a command because it's from the heart of the Creator.
   1722 is 'a primary preposition denoting a fixed position in place, time or state'. 
   5056 is the 'end' or the 'be all end all' or, 'this is what it's all about', this is the 'uttermost'; that is, these commandments are everything that the Creator is. They sum up the Creator and what His heart is and what He can do when we are open to Him.
   Emmanuel referred to them as the two great commandments.

-concision: the word means a cutting off, such as would occur in a circumcision and referring in Philippians 3:2 to such Old Testament practices, now done away as far as the Infinite One is concerned, but still practiced by those who allowed themselves to get or stay with religion, such as the ancient Pharisees, etc.

In Philippians 3:2 Paul was warning them to avoid getting entangled in all the old stuff, stuff that was now no longer applicable.

Paul also talks of this in Galatians 5:1-3.

-Cyrus:.B.C.E. 599-529, reigned 550-529. In the Hebrew language it was 'Koresh'. Cyrus was the celebrated 'King of Persia'.(Elam), a very powerful king who was conqueror of Babylon and who issued the decree of liberation to the Jews:.Ezra 1:1,2. He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of Persia and was born about B.C.E. 599. In the year B.C.E. 559 he became king of Persia.(map).with the kingdom of Media being partly added to Persia by conquest. The Persians regarded the Medes as equals as their countries were adjacent to each other. Media had risen to a place of great power, vastly extending its boundaries.

Media was in southwest Asia in present-day northwest Iran. It became part of the Assyrian Empire and was conquered in B.C.E. 550 by Cyrus the Great, who added it to the Persian Empire. But it did not long exist as an independent kingdom. It rose with Cyaxares, its first king and it passed away with him, for during the reign of his son and successor Astyages, the Persians waged war against the Medes and conquered them, the two nations being united under one monarch, Cyrus the Persian in B.C.E. 558.

Cyrus succeeded to the thrones of Media and Persia and completed the union between those countries in B.C.E. 536, which appear to have been in reality but two nations of the same race, having the same religion and using languages similar to each other and to the ancient Sanskrit.

Previously to their union under Cyrus, Daniel speaks of the law of the Medes and Persians as being the same:.Daniel 6:8.

Cyrus was a great military leader. Babylon fell before his army in B.C.E. 538 on the night of Belshazzar's feast.(Daniel 5th chapter).and then the ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to his empire. Hitherto the great kings of the Earth had oppressed the ancient tribes now known collectively as the Jews. Cyrus was to them as a 'shepherd':.Isaiah 44:28; 45:1.

The Creator employed him in doing service to God's ancient people. He may possibly have gained, through contact with the Jews, some knowledge of their religion. The 'first year of Cyrus'.(Ezra 1:1,2).is not the year of his elevation to power over the Medes, nor over the Persians, nor the year of the fall of Babylon, but the year succeeding the two years during which 'Darius the Mede' was viceroy in Babylon after its fall. At this time and only in B.C.E. 536, Cyrus became actual king over Palestine, which became a part of his Babylonian empire.

The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem marked a great epoch in the history of the Israelitish people. A chronicle drawn up just after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of the last king of Babylon and of the fall of the Babylonian empire.

In B.C.E. 538 there was a revolt in southern Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the north. In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at Opis and immediately afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the conqueror. Gobryas a.k.a. Ugbaru, the governor of Kurdistan.

In October, Cyrus himself arrived and proclaimed a general amnesty, which was communicated by Gobryas to 'all the province of Babylon' of which he had been made governor.

Cyrus now assumed the title of 'king of Babylon' and made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he allowed the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to return to their old homes, carrying with them the images of their gods. Among these populations were the Jews, who, as they had no images, took with them the sacred vessels of the temple. The Jews, having been in captivity in Babylon.(2Chronicles 36:10), came out under Cyrus.

After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from India to the Dardanelles.(a strait connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara {map}), placed Darius, a Median prince, on the throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held the office of first of the 'three presidents' of the empire and was thus practically at the head of affairs, no doubt interesting himself in the prospects of the captive Jews whom he had at last the happiness of seeing themselves restored to their own land, although Daniel did not return with them, but remained in Babylon.

In the seventh century Persia fell under the power of the Saracens, in the thirteenth century it was conquered by Genghis Khan and in the fourteenth by Tamerlane.

Modern Persia is bounded north by Georgia, the Caspian sea and Tartary; east by Afghanistan and Beloochistan; south by Ormus and west by the dominions of Turkey. Its inhabitants retain to a remarkable extent the manners and custom of ancient Persia, of which we have so vivid a picture in the Bible books of Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah and Daniel.

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