J u d g e s.(*):.Written
1406, by who is unknown; the majority of critics ascribe
it to Samuel, B.C.E. 1403, but many regard it as
The book of Judges is the
history of Israel
during the government of the Judges.(in
Hebrew, written 'Shophetim'), which lasted
for 450 years until the time of Samuel the prophet.
It is supposed that some
each other, but chronologists
are not agreed as to the mode
the accounts in Judges with other known dates.
Judges were raised up by
the Creator to rescue Israel from their oppressors, to reform their state
and to administer justice to the people:.1Samuel
2:25 "If one man sin against another the judge shall judge him, but
if a man sin against the LORD, who
shall intreat for him?..."
13:17-22 "The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers and exalted
the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt and with an
high arm brought he them out of it. And about the time of forty years suffered
he their manners in the wilderness. And when he had destroyed seven nations
in the land of Chanaan.(the
New Testament spelling for Canaan),
he divided their land to them by lot.
And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred
and fifty years.(the
Judges were also involved in the dividing
of land), until Samuel
And afterward they desired a king. And God gave unto them Saul
the son of Cis.(Old Testament
spelling is Kish), a man of the tribe of Benjamin,
by the space of forty years. And when he had removed him, he raised up
unto them David to be their
king, to whom also he gave testimony and said, I have found David the son
of Jesse, a man after mine own heart,
which shall fulfil all my will."
These judges ruled ancient Israel
until the time of the first king, who was Saul.(1Samuel
before the next kings who were David
and his son Solomon.
The Judges of Israel:
There is also a different
person whose name was also Saul. This was the Saul of the New Testament
whose name was changed to Paul.
The state of God's people
does not appear in this book as very prosperous, nor is their character
so devout as
might have been expected. Time
and time again after one judge died, the people Israel would fall again
There were many believers
among them and the service of the ancient tabernacle
was attended to.
Judges is the name given
to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during
the interval between the death of Joshua
and the accession
2:18), a period of general anarchy
Judges is the history of
Israel's passing into the land
of Canaan, conquering and dividing it, under the command of Joshua
and their history until his death. The power and truth of the Creator in
fulfilling his promises to Israel and in executing his justly threatened
vengeance on the Canaanites are displayed.
The judges authority was
limited by the law alone and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult
God through the priest by means of the Urim
and Thummim. The judges authority extended only over those tribes by
whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached
to their office and they bore no external marks of dignity.
The only cases of direct
divine appointment are those of Gideon.(the
story of Gideon), a
judge of ancient Israel and Samson
and the latter
stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained
'to begin to deliver Israel'.
Gideon, also known as Jerubbaal.(Judges
1249, was the son of Joash, the Abiezrite, of the tribe of Manasseh.
This was a different Joash than those with the same name that were kings.(1,
ancient Israel and Judah.
Abiezrite was one of the family of Abiezer, a great-grandson of Manasseh
and founder of the family to which Gideon belonged."
was called to deliver Israel,
but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the
Lord to be a prophet
but not a judge. Being a judge ensued from the high gifts the people recognized
as dwelling in him.
As to Eli,
the office of judge seems to have devolved
naturally or rather ex officio.(by
virtue of position).upon
him. Of five of the judges, Tola.(Judges
10:1), Jair, Ibzan, Elon and Abdon.(Judges
12:8-15), we have no record at
all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not so
much the history of individuals but of the plan of the Creator in its onward
R u t h.(*):
means 'a friend'. She
was one hot woman! Written B.C.E.
1312. Widow to Mahlon who was one of the two sons of Elimelech and Naomi.
Ruth's mother in law, came
with Ruth to Bethlehem. There Naomi had
a rich relative, Boaz, to whom Ruth eventually partnered with.
She became the mother of
Obed, the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile,
Moab is among the maternal progenitors of the one who was the Christ
in the physical body of the one called Emmanuel:.Matthew
Ruth, was not of the then
chosen race of Israel as was the Canaanitess.Tamar.(Matthew
the Canaanitess Rahab.(Matthew
1:5), privileged to become the
ancestress of David:.Ruth
This book contains excellent
examples of faith, piety,
patience, humility, industry and loving kindness in the common events of
life. Also we see the special care which the Creator takes of our smallest
concerns, encouraging us to full trust therein.
Elimelech and his sons die
in the land of Moab:.Ruth
1 s t.and.2
S a m u e l: The name Samuel means 'heard
were written B.C.E. 1055
and 1018 respectively.
from the Concise
Bible Dictionary: 'Samuel was a prophet,
from his birth, raised up by the Creator to be His servant because ancient
Israel had failed in its priests and every man was doing that which was
right in his own eyes:.Deuteronomy
12:8; Judges 17:6; Proverbs
He was one whom God answered
when he called upon Him.(Psalms
is classed with Moses as intercessor
with the Creator:.Jeremiah
15:1. Samuel was also a faithful judge in Israel and acted as priest
when Eli and his sons were dead. His
history is given in the books that bear his name, 1st and 2nd Samuel.
connected with his birth are recorded in 1Samuel
About the early years of
Samuel: Hannah, one of the
two wives of Elkanah, who came up to Shiloh to worship
before the Lord, earnestly prayed to God that she might become the mother
of a son. Her prayer was graciously granted and after the child was weaned
she brought him to Shiloh and consecrated
him to the Lord as a perpetual.Nazarite.
Here he was trained and was
attended to by the women who served in the tabernacle,
while Eli cared for development of Samuel's spiritual life, as the young
child Samuel was under the high priest Eli's care. It was here where God
Thus, probably, twelve years
of his life passed along:.1Samuel
2:26 "The child Samuel grew on and was
in favour both with the Lord and also with men";
compare Luke 2:52.
When Samuel came on the scene,
it was a time of great and growing degeneracy
21:1-25; 1Samuel 2:12-17,22.
who of late had greatly increased in number and in power, were practically
masters of the country and kept the people in subjection:.1Samuel
In the book of 1Samuel we
have an account of Eli and the wickedness
of his sons; also of Samuel, his character and actions. Then of the advancement
of Saul to be the king of ancient Israel and his ill behaviour, until his
death made way for David's succession to the throne, who was an eminent
type of Christ. David's patience, modesty, constancy, persecution by open
enemies and feigned
friends, are a pattern and example to the church and to every member of
it. Many things in this book encourage the faith, hope and patience of
the believer. It contains also many useful cautions and warnings.
About: Elkanah and his family:.1Samuel
the history of the reign of king David.
The second Book of Samuel shows that the principles which would exist under
in David. It relates his victories,
the growth of the prosperity of ancient Israel and his reformation
of the state
in regards to worship. With these events are recorded the grievous sins
he committed and the family as well as public troubles with which he reaped
what he had sown.
We here meet with many things
worthy of imitation and many that are written
for our warning.
The history of king David
is given in Scripture
with much faithfulness and from it he appears, to those who fairly balance
his many virtues and excellent qualities against his faults, to have been
a great and good man.
Information brought to David
of the death of Saul shows what David's heart was like:.2Samuel
and Jonathan, Saul's son and David's good friend:.2Samuel