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a member of a Western Christian church whose faith and practice are founded on the principles (beliefs) of the Protestant Reformation, such as justification by faith through grace, belief that the Bible is God's revelation to humanity inspired by Him and that all believers are part of His eternal family; persecution of Protestants; Protestants protested against the high-handed erroneous.doctrines of the Catholic Church and left that church, thanks mostly to Martin Luther and his amazing understanding of the Bible others missed or avoided
adherence to beliefs of a Protestant church; Protestants considered as a group

Protestant Reformation-a great 16th-century A.D. religious revolution in the Christian church.


The 14th-century (1300's) English reformer John Wycliffe, circa 1328-1384 A.D., boldly attacked the papacy itself, striking at the sale of indulgences, pilgrimages, the excessive veneration of saints and the moral and intellectual standards of ordained priests. Wycliffe's philosophy represented a complete break with the church. He believed in a direct relationship between humanity and God, without priestly mediation. By a close adherence to the Scriptures, Christians would, Wycliffe believed, govern themselves without the aid of popes and prelates. Wycliffe denounced as unscriptural many beliefs and practices of the pope's organization. To reach the common people, he translated the Bible into English and delivered sermons in English, rather than the Latin language of the papacy. His teachings spread to Bohemia, where they found a powerful advocate in the religious reformer John Huss (Jan Hus). The execution of Huss as a heretic in 1415 led directly to the Hussite Wars, a violent expression of Bohemian nationalism, suppressed with difficulty by the combined forces of the Holy Roman emperor and the pope. Huss vigorously condemned church abuses and attempted, through preaching, to bring the church to the people. Huss believed in predestination, regarded the Bible as the ultimate authority and held that Christ, rather than any inevitably corrupt ecclesiastical official, is the true head of the church.
   A number of conditions in 16th century (1500's) Europe account for the success of Martin Luther and the other reformers such as John Calvin as compared to their predecessors. Both the Holy Roman emperor and the pope were declining in power and were preoccupied with the threat posed by the Turks. The invention of printing in the 15th century made possible the rapid dissemination of the reformers' ideas. Finally, the growth of secular learning, the rise of nationalism and the increasing resentment of the pope's authority among both rulers and ordinary citizens made people, especially in northern Europe, more receptive to the truths of Protestant teachings

The Reformation which ended the influence of ecclesiastical supremacy of the pope, resulted in the establishment of the Protestant churches. With the Renaissance that preceded and the French Revolution that followed, the Reformation completely altered the medieval way of life in Western Europe and initiated the era of modern history. Although the movement dates from the early 16th century (1500's), when Martin Luther first defied the authority of the church, the conditions that led to his revolutionary stand had existed for hundreds of years and had complex doctrinal, political, economic and cultural elements.

From here the Reformation continues today. A reforming of the mess humanity has for centuries produced in just about everything he has done, a reforming toward total restitution of the ways of God that benefit humanity and away from the ways of the ego, the ways of man based on greed, selfishness, suppression, wars and all the hurts that come with those things. In this ongoing restitution man moves from falsehoods, slavery and negatives harming him societally, economically and healthwise. The ongoing restitution involves those choosing and going with higher consciousness ways than that which has been responsible for dragging the world through centuries of blood, sweat, fears and tears. The ongoing restitution began first in the heart and that's where it's carried on today and will carry on until the restitution of all things is completed.(Acts 3:21).where there will be no more heartaches and no more tears, ever again!

From the revival of the Holy Roman Empire by Otto I in 962 A.D., popes and emperors had been engaged in a continuous contest for supremacy. This conflict had generally resulted in victory for the papal side, but created bitter antagonism between Rome and the German Empire. Resentment against papal taxation and against submission to ecclesiastical officials of the distant and foreign papacy was manifested in other countries of Europe. In England the beginning of the movement toward ultimate independence from papal jurisdiction was the enactment of the statutes of Mortmain in 1279, Provisors in 1351 and Praemunire in 1393, which greatly reduced the power of the church to withdraw land from the control of the civil government for their own use of setup of a papal government, to make appointments to ecclesiastical offices and to exercise judicial authority.
   As early as the 13th century the papacy had become vulnerable to attack because of the greed, immorality and ignorance of many of its officials in all ranks of its hierarchy. Vast tax-free church possessions, constituting, according to varying estimates, as much as one-fifth to one-third of all the lands of Europe, incited the resentment of the land-poor peasantry. Papal authorities ordered Luther to retract and submit to church authority, but he became more intransigent, appealing for reform, attacking the sacramental.system and urging that religion rest on individual faith based on the guidance contained in the Bible.

Threatened with excommunication by the pope, Luther publicly burned the 'bull' or 'papal decree' of excommunication and with it a volume of canon law. In an attempt to stem the tide of revolt, Charles V, Holy Roman emperor and the German princes and ecclesiastics assembled in 1521 at the Diet of Worms meeting and ordered Luther to recant. He refused and was declared an outlaw. For almost a year he remained in hiding, writing pamphlets.expounding principles he found to be true and translating the New Testament into German. Although his writings were prohibited by the authorities, they were openly sold and were powerful instruments in turning the great German cities into centers of Lutheranism..Comprised with Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Martin Luther, a religious leader in sixteenth-century (1500's) Germany was the founder of Protestantism. Luther, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church who began what is now the famous Reformation by posting the Ninety-five Theses, which attacked the Catholic church for allowing the sale of indulgences (favoritism for money). He soon became convinced that the Roman Catholic Church was opposed to the Bible on the question of justification by grace through simply believing and that no accommodation of his beliefs on this point was possible within the Catholic church. Luther denied the authority of the pope and many other aspects of Catholic teaching, including the doctrine of transubstantiation. Luther wrote enormous numbers of books and pamphlets throughout his lifetime. Luther's most famous statement, made when he was called to account for his views before a meeting, was."It is neither safe nor prudent to do anything against conscience. Here I stand; I can do no other."....comprised with information from American Heritage Dictionary of Cultural Literacy.

the male head of some non-Christian religions such as the Taoist pope; a person considered to have unquestioned authority; the word is from Latin 'papa' and Greek 'pappas' meaning 'father' (Matthew 23:9 "And call no man your father upon the earth, for one is your Father, which is in heaven.")
the office, jurisdiction or tenure of a pope; the papacy

the office and jurisdiction of a pope; Roman Catholic Church; the system of church government headed by the pope

of, relating to or issued by a pope (the papal succession; a papal bull)

of or relating to shepherds or herders; of or relating to the country or country life; rural; charmingly simple and serene; idyllic; of, relating to or being a literary or other artistic work that portrays or evokes rural life, usually in an idealized.manner; of or relating to a pastor or the duties of a pastor (pastoral duties; a pastoral letter)
a literary or other artistic work that portrays or evokes rural life, usually in an idealized manner; in music, a pastorale

in music, an instrumental or vocal composition with a tender.melody in a moderately slow rhythm, suggestive of traditional shepherds' music and idyllic.rural life; a dramatic performance or opera, popular in the 16th and 17th centuries, that was based on a rural theme or subject

those who provide spiritual guidance (Jeremiah 23:1,2) are pastors and teachers; a Christian.minister or priest having spiritual charge over a congregation or other group; a layperson, such as a deacon, having spiritual charge over a person or group (a shepherd is one who looks after sheep)
pastor, pastored, pastoring, pastors.transitive verbs
to serve or act as pastor of

an unbroken view of an entire surrounding area; comprehensive presentation; a survey (a panoramic view; a panorama of American literature); a picture or series of pictures representing a continuous scene; a mental vision of a series of events

a verbal composition.designed to convey.experiences, ideas.or.emotions in a vivid and imaginative way, characterized by the use of condensed language chosen for its sound and suggestive power and by the use of literary.techniques such as meter, metaphor.and.rhyme; composition in verse rather than in prose; a literary composition written with an intensity or beauty of language more characteristic of poetry than of prose; a creation, an object or an experience having beauty suggestive of poetry

metrical language or writing; the art or work of a poet; the poetic works of a given author, group, nation or kind; a piece of literature written in meter; verse; prose that resembles a poem in some respect, as in form or sound
of, relating to poetry (poetic works); having a quality or style.characteristic of poetry (poetic diction); suitable as a subject for poetry (a poetic romance); of, relating.to.or.befitting a poet (poetic insight); characterized by romantic imagery
the practice of writing poetry; poetics
poetics.noun.used with a singular or plural verb
literary.criticism that deals with the nature, forms and laws of poetry; a treatise on or study of poetry or aesthetics; the practice of writing poetry; poetic composition
poetical means the same as poetic, such as say, a poetical description of the jungle
in a poetic manner
poeticalness or poeticality.noun
a writer of poems; one who demonstrates great imaginative power, insight or beauty of expression (she qualifies as a poet in her garden flower arrangements)

feeling or expressing remorse for one's misdeeds or sins
one who is penitent
the condition or quality of being penitent; regret for wrongdoing

not penitent; unrepentant; unwilling to change; stubborn; no humility
impenitence, impenitent.nouns

the hydrolytic breakdown of proteins into simpler, soluble substances, as occurs in digestion

relating to, characterized by or promoting proteolysis

ordinary speech or writing, without metrical (composed in poetic meter; metrical verse; five metrical units in a line; of or relating to measurement) structure; commonplace expression or quality (William Cobbett wrote much prose about the need for change in the established social order)
prose, prosed, prosing, proses.intransitive verbs

Law: the deliberate, willful giving of false, misleading or incomplete testimony under oath; the breach of an oath or a promise

the level of respect at which one is regarded by others; standing; a person's high standing among others; honor or esteem; widely recognized prominence, distinction or importance (a position of prestige in diplomatic circles)
attributive.often used to modify another noun (a prestige address or the prestige groups in society)

the extent or range of function, power or competence; scope; range; range of vision, comprehension or experience; outlook
Law:-the body, scope or limit of a statute

protocol is a system of rules about the correct way to act in formal.situations (he has become something of a stickler for the finer observances of royal protocol); a code of correct conduct (a violation of safety protocols, academic protocol); the forms of ceremony and etiquette observed by diplomats and heads of state; the first copy of a treaty or other such document before its ratification; a preliminary.draft or record of a transaction; a protocol is a written record of a treaty or agreement that has been made by two or more countries (the Montreal Protocol to phase out use and production of CFCs); a protocol is a plan for a course of medical treatment or a plan for a scientific experiment (a detoxification protocol); 
Computers:.a protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information between computers (we use TCP/IP as the standard procedure for regulating data transmission between computers)
protocol, protocoled, protocoling, protocols.intransitive verbs
to form or issue protocols (Greek proto- + Greek koll¶ma, sheets of a papyrus glued together {from kollan, to glue together, from kolla, glue})
protocolar or protocolary.adjective

petty, pettier, pettiest.adjectives
of small importance; trivial.(a petty grievance); marked by narrowness of mind, ideas or views; marked by meanness or lack of generosity, especially in trifling matters; secondary in importance or rank (a chief petty officer; petty larceny); subordinate; minutia

marked by or requiring great pains; very careful and diligent; meticulous
extremely careful and diligent work or effort

a widespread affliction or calamity; a sudden destructive influx or injurious outbreak (a plague of locusts, a plague of accidents); a cause of annoyance; a nuisance; a highly infectious, usually fatal, epidemic disease, especially bubonic plague
plague, plagued, plaguing, plagues.transitive verbs
to pester or annoy persistently or incessantly; harass; to afflict with or as if with a disease or calamity (income tax is often a plague to those working overtime)

of, relating to or consisting of more than two names or terms
a taxonomic.designation consisting of more than two terms; in mathematics, an algebraic.expression consisting of one or more summed terms, each term consisting of a constant multiplier and one or more variables raised to integral.powers (for example, 
x2 5x + 6 and 2p3q + y are polynomials); also called multinomial; an expression of two or more terms

full of or having pores; admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices; easily crossed or penetrated
the state or property of being porous; a structure or part that is porous; the ratio of the volume of all the pores in a material to the volume of the whole

percolate, percolated, percolating, percolates.verbs
transitive verb use.to cause liquid, for example, to pass through a porous.substance or small holes; filter; to pass or ooze through (water percolated the sand); to make coffee in a percolator
intransitive verb use.to drain or seep through a porous material or filter; to become lively or active (she was just percolating after hearing the good news)
a liquid that has been percolated

a student in a school learning from a teacher; the black circular opening in the center of the iris of the eye, through which light passes to the retina